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a



abādha

M The fact to be free from all hindrances, all interdictions.

abbhāna

N [Reintegration (within the saṃgha)]. Procedure designed for reintegrating a bhikkhu who has got entirely purified from a saṃghādisesa. This procedure enables to reaccept him fully within the community and to consider him again the same as other bhikkhus.

abhidhamma

M [Superior, to face (sth) (abhi); study of reality (dhamma)]. Supreme science on reality. Third basket of tipiṭaka, the abhidhamma is the purely theoretical part of it. It does detail forth a full description of everything that can be perceived and all the functioning that reality is made of.

abhijjā

M [Covetousness, greed].

abhiñña

F [Extraordinary knowledge]. Capacity of the mind to develop some specific visions and psychical powers.

The abhiññās do take place into the shape of remembrance of former rebirths, penetration of others' thoughts, the capacity to travel underground or in the air, or to proceed (by means of the mind) to other worlds, such as the ones of the devas or hells. This set of six forms of knowledge can only be developed after the fourth jhāna has been reached, and only by an arahanta.

abrahmacariyā

N [Absence of chastity]. Sexual activity.

adhimokkha

M Decision, determination.

adhogama

M [Under, below].

ādinava

M The fact to become aware of the perishable character of all things.

adinna

[That which has not been given].

adinnādānā

N [To take what is not given]. Theft.

adiṭṭhāna

N Determination. Fact to decide and to stick to a training into a certain kind of conduct or to some moral principles.

aggasāvaka

M [Disciple (sāvaka) supreme (agga)]. The aggasāvakas are Buddha's two main disciples (Venerable Sāriputtara and Venerable Moggalāna).

agha

M / N Poverty. Stain, defilement.

ahirika

N Absence of feeling of shame. The fact to be unmoved by moral shame. Not to feel any embarassment whatsoever regarding misconduct.

ājīva

N [Means of livelihood]. Means to earn one's living.

akusala

T [(That which is ) bad, improper] N Demerit caused by a negative action, a negative word or a negative intention, which does forcibly generate a painful consequence, whether in thos present life or the followings, for the one who does commit it.

All negative actions are akusalas.

There do exist five akusalas (pañcānantariyākaṃ) that do prevent one from realising nibbāna in this present life:

  • mātu yātaka
    Killing one's mother
  • phitu yātaka
    Killing one's father
  • arahanta yātaka
    Killing an arahanta
  • lohituppa taka
    To inflict an haematoma to a Buddha (it is impossible to kill a Buddha)
  • saṃgha bhedaka
    To create a schism or a conflict within the saṃgha

anāgāmi

[The one who never returns]. It does involve the third stage of realisation among the four that the ariyās do reach.

As its definition stresses it out , the one who does experience this stage will be reborn into a specific sphere where do dwell only anāgāmis or arahantas (unless the stage of arahanta is reached at dying time), but never more in any any other sphere of existence whatsoever. In this sphere of anāgāmis, devoid of any material senses, having nothing else to do save observing phenomena, all the anāgāmis become arahantas, and thus enter into parinibbāna at the completion of this existence.

ānāpāna

N Air entering and going out (while breathing).

ānāpātimokkha

[Authority (ānā); that which does watch his conduct (pātimokkha)]. Statement of the rules of the pātimokkha made by Buddha himself.

anatta

N Characteristic of absence of essential characteristic or self-inherent existence within all things.

Among all the things that do exist in the universe, none do exist by itself. Any object or being can be nothing else than a compound of elements that undergo ceaseless modifications and which are themselves the outcome of a large number of conditions. As a consequence, nothing can be controled; neither material objects, nor consciousnesses. anatta is the third among the three characteristics.

See also: anatta

anesanā

F Improper way to covet things (belongings). There are twenty one of them.

aṅgamaṇgānusārī

M Set of entrances and exits of the bodily air.

anicca

T [That doesn't last]. Characteristic of impermanence in all things.

anicca is an unescapable law owing to the fact that all that which does appear in the world or to consciousness must forcibly have an origination, a certain duration and enter un stage of decay. Here we deal with the second among the three characteristics.

See also: anicca

aniyata

Undefined fault. Offence committed in a way such that it creates an ambiguous situation; a witness knows that there has been a transgression, without being able to specify which one. There are 2 aniyatas.

See also: The 2 aniyatas

anottappa

N Absence of fear.

anuloma

N That which is convenient.

anumāna

N Knowledge of a fact out of suspicion. Existence of something or a fact, guessed owing to the knowledge of external elements or information.

anupādisesa

M Extinction of the body.

apatti

F [Arrival].

āpatti

F Offence committed by a bhikkhu. Any breach of the vinaya is an āpatti.

See also: The faults

apāya

T [Devoid of happiness]. Group of the inferior worlds. The apāyas do comprise four worlds:

  1. The asuras.
  2. The animals.
  3. The petas.
  4. The evils.

The existence of these worlds is prevailingly dominated by some emotions such as aversion, hatred and anger

āpo

M [Water].

appanā

F Very high level of concentration.

arahanta

M [Worthy one]. A being who has eliminated the entirety of mental impurities (kilesās) and who, in consequence, is free from all attachment and from all forms of suffering.

Such a being has no reason to take rebirth into one of the thirty two spheres of saṃsarā will experience parinibbāna at the end of his present existence.

āramma

N [Perception].

āraññika

F [The fact to dwell in the forest].

ariyā

T [Noble being]. A being who has experienced nibbāna. With this, he has eliminated the wrong views (existence of a self-inherent entity, efficacy of rituals, etc.), and has acquired an immovable confidence towards the dhamma. He is assured of no more rebirths in the lower realms.

According to the experienced stage, four kinds of ariyās are being considered (sotāpana, sakadāgāmi, anāgāmi and arahanta).

arūpa

Absence of matter.

asammoha

F Absence of perplexity, of hesitation. Absence of indecision while facing a situation.

āsava

M [That which does unceasingly appear]. Mental impurities. The four āsavas are:

  1. (kāmāsava)
  2. (bhavāsava)
  3. (diṭṭhāsava)
  4. (avijjāsava)

āsavakkhaya

N The fact to have no more kilesās.

assāsa

M [Air which is coming out].

asubha

N [Displeasing]. Displeasing thing. Repulsive and disgusting character of something.

asura

M Specific kind of being. Some of them live in the highest sphere of existence of the apāyas (between the one of humans and the one of animals) while others in the set of the world devas. An ordinary human being cannot glimpse an asura.

atirita

Procedure consisting in considering food as a bhikkhu's leftovers so that a bhikkhu can continue eating after having refused to be served.

atta

N [Self-inherent entity]. That which rests upon itself. Self-inherent existence of a thing.

attānuvāda

M [Self (atta); To address reproaches (anuvāda)]. The fact to address reproaches to oneself. Self-criticism arising out regrets owing to a bad action.

attasammāpaṇidhi

N [Self (atta); good, correct (sammā); mastery (apaṇidhi)]. The fact to be self-disciplined, to control oneself in order to preserve a good virtue.

attavāda

M [Self-inherent entity (atta); conviction (vāda)]. Idea according to which we exist by ourselves.

attavādupādāna

N [Self-inherent entity (atta); conviction (vāda); greed (upādāna)]. Greed arising from the idea that we are eternal, that we exist by ourselves.

aṭṭhakathā

F Set of commentaries included into the tipiṭaka and whose truthfulness is acknowledged by the saṃgha.

The aṭṭhakathās do provide a very helpful guidance to all those who thoroughly study the texts on dhamma as they do explain their basic essentials while throwing fresh light on the most sensitive points.

atthāpanna

N Knowledge of a fact by deduction. Knowledge of a result through the presence of its cause.

atthapaṭisambhidā

F Analytical understanding of the significance, essence and consequences of things.

āvāsa

M [Mansion]. Place where we dwell.

avīci

M [That which is totally devoid of pleasure]. avīci is the name given to the most painful hell.

avuso

Friend. A term of naming that a bhikkhu utilises while addressing a younger bhikkhu (according to the number of vassa).

avijjā

M [Ignorance]. Absence of knowledge of the dhamma.

āyatana

N Unceasing appearance of nāmas and rūpas, which are making up the six kinds of sensations experienced from the six senses' doors.

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Author: Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date: 2001

Translator: Thierry Lambrou

Update: 2005, June the 20th