N Gift, offering, generosity. dāna is the practice of gift, which takes place through the development of states of mind such as generosity and disinterestedness. This practice does constitute the foundation of the three sections of kusalas (dāna, sīla and bhāvanā).
M [Donor]. Benefactor of the saṃgha. The dāyaka is a person who regularly helps bhikkhus in their practice, study and teaching of the dhamma.
To do so, he offers, according to his capabilities, to one or several bhikkhus, what they need. A bhikkhu can make his needs known to a dāyaka only if the later has expressly requested the former to inform him of his requirements. A dāyaka could also perfectly well offer some food, robes, soap, a lodging, a pagoda or anything else enabling others to come to know or know the dhamma.
See also: The dāyakas and the kappiyas
F [Female donor]. Female counterpart of a dāyaka (see this term).
M [Spot]. Place, region. / motive (subject that is being dealt with).
To perform desanā, to a bhikkhu, is a means to purify his faults (apart from some pārājikas and saṃghādisesas) that he has committed on purpose or not.
To that sake, he "unveils" these faults by uttering a formula before in the presence of another bhikkhu who will, on his turn, will also unveil his own. Usually, the bhikkhus do it once a day. It is very essential to do desanā just before the reading of the pātimokkha so that all the bhikkhus do cultivate a pure sīla at this very stage.
See also: The desanā
M Being dwelling in the sphere of existence bearing the same name and which is superior to the one of humans.
A deva is endowed with far subtler and more refined sensuous perceptive faculties than the ones of humans. There do exist six different categories of devas. The individuals pertaining to the lowest category can expect to live up to nine millions of years and the ones pertaining to the loftiest, up to nine billions two hundred sixteen millions of years. A deva does enjoy a tremendous comfort. All his needs are being fulfilled in such an easy way that he absolutely has no effort to do to satisfy them.
Most of humans dream to experience these kinds of living conditions as they ceaselessly go after pleasure. Such a rejoicing life quality as the one of a deva is dangerous as in no wise does it stir up within those beings (except a few exceptional cases) an interest into the path to detachment, which is meant for eradicating suffering. In spite of the appearances, suffering is being experienced, at any elapsing moment, among all the beings of each sphere of existence. Thus, the kind of life which is led by a deva widely prompts him to be rooted into ignorance.
F Female counterpart of deva (see this world).
M [Reality, thing]. Nature of all things. That which Buddha has taught (apart from the vinaya). Study of reality. Consciousness. Every moment of consciousness which does appear in the mind is a dhamma. Detachment and deliverance from the world.
The term dhamma can also sometimes refer to nibbāna. Practice, training.
See also: dhamma
M [Gift (dāna) of the teaching on reality (dhamma)]. dhammadāna is the noblest among practices of gift, as it lies in offering the knowledge of the dhamma to sentient beings.
When a bhikkhu gives a teaching on reality, it is meant for enabling others to cultivate a right understanding of their own lives. It thus helps them to better manage them so as to get beneficial results, even the supreme fruit: the realisation of nibbāna.
F Teaching of the dhamma. Discourse having, as subject, the things of reality, the four nobles truths, Buddha's teaching.
F Focussing of the attention, moment after moment, on physical and mental phenomena.
F Analytical understanding of the nature of the dhamma, of the causation law, by means of language.
F Fact to listen to the dhamma, Buddha's word, the teaching on reality.
F [nature (of a thing)].
N Contemplation on the four elements: the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element.
N [Abandon (dhuta); state of mind (aṅga)] [Abandon of mental defilements]. The thirteen dhutaṅgas are a set of ascetic practices taught by Buddha. they are meant for reducing the attachments of the one who observe them, through a training lying in reducing to the least material comfort, food consumption and the use of robes.
Contrarily to the pātimokkha, the bhikkhus are not under compulsion to observe the dhutaṅgas. According to his capacities or determination, everyone is free to practice one, several, all or none of them.
See also: The 13 ascetic practices
M deva (see this word).
N [Eye of deva]. Knowledge enabling to see everything from all sides and distances.
M [Ear of deva]. Knowledge enabling to hear everything from all sides and distances.
F [Sight, vision of things, belief].
N [Vision (diṭṭhi); eagerness (upādāna)]. Eagerness towards beliefs.
M Repulsion, hatred, anger.
T Rude language. Aggressive and violent speech.
T Bad speech. Fault due to unwholesome speech (untruthful, hurtful, vulgar or futile speech).
M Bad destination. Rebirth in some distressing and pitiful stages of being.
N Austere practices. Practice in extreme destitution. Fact to practise with a complete determination, being detrimental to one's body, and even one's life.
T Fault due to unwholesome action.
See also: The dukkatas and the dubbhāsitas
T Characteristic of dissatisfaction inherent to all things. Compound of all that which doesn't bring a complete and lasting satisfaction.
dukkha does manifest in several shapes: Ordinary suffering (pain), dissatisfaction incurred when not obtaining that which we desire, the dissatisfaction to undergo that which we are averse to, and the fact to experience sensations, even pleasurable ones as on one side, we cannot prevent them from being fleeting by nature, as they inescapably enter a stage of decay and the other, their occurence is but the consequence of displeasurable sensations.
dukkha is the first of the three characteristics.
See also: dukkha
N [Opening]. Sensory door.
Author: Monk Dhamma Sāmi
Translator: Thierry Lambrou
Update: 2005, June the 20th