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N Consciousness. (Sensation, perception, volition and consciousness).


N [Knowledge].

The progress achieved through the satipaṭṭhāna enables one to realise several ñāṇas, which are stages of knowledge (or wisdom). There are also ñāṇas that are specific to a Buddha, while others are peculiar to an arahanta, etc.


M Fact that no kilesās are found.


F [Words destined to let the saṃgha know about something].

F Contemplation of the loathsome aspect of corpses. This contemplation is of nine kinds, according to the stages decomposition of corpses, etc.


M Renunciation to the world, renunciation to pleasures. Dismissing, turning oneself aside from mundane things for leading a solitary life.

In this case, a solitary life doesn't mean to live remote from others' company but simply no longer getting involved into human society's business, hence working for one's realisation.


N [Disappearance of mental impurities (and of the dangers that they do carry out)]. Reality bearing neither object, nor consciousness. Innibbāna, physical and mental phenomena do no longer appear.

When a being does experience nibbāna, he/she becomes an ariyā. Being no longer enclined to commit strongly negative actions, such as killing or stealing, he/she will never take birth within lower worlds. nibbāna can be experienced a large number of times and last from the fraction of a second up to several hours according to the intensity of concentration being developed. The one who has eradicated the whole of kilesās (the arahanta) will experience nibbāna at the end of his/her life and will never more depart from it. This is called parinibbāna.

Among all these terms, nibbāna is probably the subtlest and most difficult to understand. It is inconceivable by definition.

See also: nibbāna


F Disgust. Exasperation from saṃsarā.


N [Eternal, which does last]. Permanence.


N [Sufficiency]. Self-contentment.


N [Image, object, sign]. Steady meditation support, on which the mind does focus so as to develop samatha concentration (which brings about tranquillity).


N [Fact to make a gesture or pointing at something]. Action lying in making somebody understand something by means of a gesture or by designating an object.


[Cessation] nirodha is the cessation of all aggregates and consciousness as a whole – even at a subtle level. In order to be experienced, it does require some specific determinations and the development of considerably more concentration than the one required for experiencing nibbāna.


F Analytical understanding within a philological approach of the dhamma. Deep understanding of the mode of language expression that is being utilised in connection with reality (grammar, gathering of sentences, etc.)


T [That which must be forsaken]. Fault irremediably calling for the forsaking of an object obtained in an improper way. If it is about an object that a bhikkhu is authorised to keep, he does forsake it, only for short while, to another bhikkhu, who then give it back to him.

See also: The 30 nissaggiyas


Piece of cloth designed for multiple utilisations and utilised by the bhikkhus.

A nissīdana is carried on the shoulder (at all time). The role of this piece of cloth lies in not becoming dirty; it is mainly utilised to sit on it in order not to make one's robe dirty. It can also be utilised as a napkin during the meal or as a protection against a possible natural emission of sperm at sleeping time.


Flows of discursive thoughts that ceaselessly appear within the one who doesn't have a sharp mental concentration.

The nīvaranas do constitute an obstacle to the purity of a chosen object to be focused on while training into the development of concentration, but allow the sustainance of vigilance and attention.

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Author: Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date: 2001

Translator: Thierry Lambrou

Update: 2005, June the 20th