"sañcetanikā sukkavissaṭṭhi aññatra supinantā saṃghādiseso."
Not to deliberately emit sperm. If a bhikkhu masturbates himself or gets someone else to masturbate him until the emission of the sperm, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
A bhikkhu must not deliberately cherish his sex with the hand, neither doing so by using an instrument, nor making it move in the air. By doing so, if the sperm, even if it is only a tiny quantity that even a fly is able to drink, spreads from its original spot to the testicles, this bhikkhu commits the saṃghādisesa 1.
Note: This rule partly corresponds with the third of the ten precepts.
"yo pana bhikkhu otiṇṇo vipāriṇatena cittena mātugāmena saddhiṃ kāyasaṃ saggaṃ samāpajjeyya hatthaggāhaṃ vā veṇiggāhaṃ vā aññatarassa vā aññatarassa vā aṅgassa paramasanaṃ saṃghādiseso."
Not to touch a woman. If, with a lustful mind, a bhikkhu touches a woman - even a female born on that very same day - or the hair of a woman (not cut), it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
By touching a cloth or a jewel worn by a woman, a bhikkhu commits a fault but not the saṃghādisesa (provided the woman is not touched along with that part of cloth or jewel).
In the same way, by touching a woman who is a relative, his mother or sister for instance, even with a mind rid of lust, he commits a fault but not the saṃghādisesa.
By accidentally touching a woman, there is no fault. However, if a woman touches a bhikkhu, this latter must not undergo it passively, because if he takes pleasure in it, even for a short while, he immediately commits the saṃghādisesa 2.
By touching a woman with some kind of utensil, a bhikkhu commits a thullaccaya.
Note: This rule partly corresponds with the third of the ten precepts.
"yo pana bhikkhu otiṇṇo vipariṇatena cittena mātugāmaṃ duṭṭhullāhi vācāhi obhāseyya yatha taṃ yuvā yuvatiṃ methunupasaṃhitāhi, saṃghādiseso."
Not to have an ill-mannered conversation with a woman. If with a lustful state of mind, a bhikkhu utters some ill-mannered speech regarding copulation or sodomy, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
"yo pana bhikkhu otiṇṇo vipariṇatena cittena mātugāmassa santike attakāmapāriyāya vaṇṇaṃ bhāseyya "etadaggaṃ bhagini pāricariyānaṃ yā rādisaṃ sīlavantaṃ kalyāṇadhammaṃ brahmacāriṃ etena dhammena paricareyyā" ti methunupasaṃhitena, saṃghādiseso."
Not to propose sexual intercourse to a woman. If with a lustful state of mind, a bhikkhu indecently proposes a woman to copulate - with him or another person - it entails a meeting of the saṃgha. A bhikkhu who tells a woman that the girls wishing to be reborn under auspicious conditions must give him their bodies, commits the saṃghādisesa 4.
"yo pana bhikkhu sañcarittaṃ samāpajjeyya ittiyā vā purisamatiṃ purisassa vā ittimatiṃ jāyattane vā jārattane vā, antamaso taṅkheṇikāyapi, saṃghādiseso."
Not to unite couples. If a bhikkhu plans encounters between men and women with the intention to unite them or if he plans encounters between prostitutes and people interested in them, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
If the following three factors are combined together, the saṃghādisesa 5 is being committed:
"saññāsikāya pana bhikkhunā kuṭiṃ kārayamānena assāmikaṃ attuddesāṃ pamāṇikā kāretabbā, tatridaṃ pamāṇaṃ, dīyaso dvādasa vidattiyo sugavidattiyā, tiriyaṃ sattantarā, bhikkhū abhinetabbā vattudesanāya, tehi bhikkhūhi vattu desetabbaṃ anārambhaṃ saparikkamanaṃ, sārambhe ce bhikkhuvatthusmiṃ aparikkamane saññācikāya kuṭiṃ kāreyya, bhikkhū vā anabhineyya vatthudesanāya, pamāṇaṃ vā abhikkāmeyya, saṃghādiseso."
Not to build a housing exceeding 2.70 metres by 1.60 metres (2.95 yards by 1.74 yards), without the agreement of the saṃgha, and doing harm to living beings, or not providing enough space to turn around it. The housing that a bhikkhu builds for himself must have a surface that will not exceed twelve measurements in length (measure by hand span; a quarter yard; nine inches) and seven in width - around 2.70 metres by 1.60 metres (2.95 yards by 1.74 yards). Before building a housing, the bhikkhu must seek the agreement of the saṃgha by indicating the spot of the construction project. The construction should not be done in an area where it is likely to harm insects - or other living beings. There must be sufficient space for a cow drawn cart to move around it. If one of these conditions is not fulfilled, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
There are places where a bhikkhu cannot build housings: places inhabited by animals; cultivated lands; prison compounds; cemetery; a place where alcohol is being sold; slaughterhouse area; junctions and crossroads.
A bhikkhu who lives in a big cave does commit no fault at all.
"mahallakaṃ pana bhikkhu, vihāraṃ kārayamānena sassāmikaṃ attuddesaṃ bhikkhū abhinetabbā vatthudesanāya, tehi bhikkhūhi vatthu desetabbaṃ anārambhaṃ saparikkamanaṃ. sārambe ce bhikkhusmiṃ aparikkamane mahallamane mahallakaṃ vihāraṃ kāreyya bhikkhū vā anabhineyya vatthudesanāya, saṃghādiseso."
Not to build a monastery without the approval of the saṃgha, harming living beings or not allowing to make a whole turn around it. If a bhikkhu whom a dāyaka requests to choose a place so as to build a house for this former, or even a monastery, doesn't respect the following points, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha: The bhikkhu is supposed to invite other bhikkhus so as to show them the spot of the future building complex in order to get their approval.
The place of the future construction must cause absolutely no harm to living beings and must not be situated on a cultivated land.
A cart of four cows must have enough space to make a whole turn around the building.
"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuṃ duṭṭhā doso appahīto amūlakena pārājikena dhammena anuddhaṃseyya "appeva nāma naṃ imahmā brahmacariyā sāveyya" nti, tato aparena samanuggāhīyamāno vā asamanuggāhīyamāno vā amūlakañceva taṃ adhikaraṇaṃ hoti, bhikkhu ca dosaṃ patiṭṭhāti, saṃghādiseso."
Not to groundlessly accuse a bhikkhu of having committed a pārājika. If, with the intention to ruin the name of another bhikkhu, a bhikkhu groundlessly accuses the former of having committed a pārājika, and claims having seen or heard him doing it, whether he launched this accusation following a question or not, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuṃ duṭṭho doso appatīto aññabhāgiyassa adhikaraṇassa kiñci desaṃ lesamattaṃ upādāya pārājikena dhammena anuddhaṃseyya "appeva nāma naṃ imahmā brahmacariyā sāveyya" nti, tato aparena samayena samanuggāhīyamāno vā asamanuggāhīyamāno vā aññabhāgiyañceva taṃ adhikaraṇaṃ hoti kocideso lesamatto upādinno, bhikkhu ca dosaṃ patiṭṭhāti, saṃghādiseso."
Not to make believe that a first bhikkhu has committed a pārājika by deliberately accusing a second one who shows similarity with the first. If, to get others to believe that a bhikkhu has committed a pārājika, a bhikkhu deliberately accuses another person who shows a similarity with the other, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha. For example, a bhikkhu sees a short, stout person stealing a box of pastries. If this bhikkhu seizes the opportunity to get the small and fat bhikkhu who lives in his monastery and whom he does not like, accused of pārājika, by saying that he saw a "small fat person stealing a box of sweets", he commits the saṃghādisesa 9.
We can number ten kinds of similarities: the cast (the social rank); the name; the ethnical origin (the nationality); the physical appearance; the fault; the bowl; the robe; the preceptor; the instructor and the dwelling place.
"yo pana bhikkhu samaggassa saṃghassa bhedaya parakkameyya, bhedanasaṃvattanikaṃ vā adhiraṇaṃ samādāya paggahya tiṭṭheyya, so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi evamassa vacanīyo "māyasmā samaggassa bhedāya parakkami, bhedanasaṃvattanikaṃ vā adhikaraṇaṃ samādāya paggahya aṭṭhāsi, sametāyasmā saṃghena, samaggohi saṃgho sammodamāno avivadamāno ekuddeso phāsu viharatī" ti, evañca so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi vuccamāno tatheva paggahṇeyya, so bhikkhu bhikkhūgi yāvatatiyaṃ samanubhāsitabbo tassa paṭinissaggāya, yāvatatiyañce samanubhāsiyamāno taṃ paṭinissajjeyya, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce paṭinissajjeyya, saṃghādiseso."
Not to create a division within the saṃgha. If a bhikkhu attempts to destroy the equilibrium or the harmony that prevails between the members of the saṃgha, these latter must tell him: "Do not destroy the harmony that prevails within the saṃgha. Do not do anything that is likely to divide the saṃgha. Leave the saṃgha and the moral principles intact. If the saṃgha remains united, there could be only heartfelt joy and absence of mutual discord within it. By expounding the pātimokkha all together, bhikkhus will remain tranquil, free of troubles". If, after having been stated these principles of virtuous conduct by means of a specific formula, the bhikkhu does not reject his view point, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
Among the bhikkhus who attempt to create a division within the saṃgha, those who reject their incorrect opinions, who are insane, who are unconscious or who are afflicted by intense physical pain, do not commit the saṃghādisesa 10.
Here are the eighteen ways to attempt to create a division within the saṃgha: Asserting that... 1) that which is not the dhamma is the dhamma); 2) that which is the dhamma is not the dhamma); 3) that which is not vinaya is the vinaya; 4) that which is vinaya is not the vinaya; 5) that which Buddha has not taught has been taught; 6) that which Buddha has taught has not been taught; 7) that which Buddha has not repeated has been repeated; 8) that which Buddha has repeated has not been repeated; 9) that which Buddha has not established has been established; 10) that which Buddha has established has not been established; 11) a fault that wasn't committed has been committed; 13) a fault that was committed has not been committed; 13) a minor fault when it is about a serious fault; 14) a serious fault when it is about a minor fault; 15) an exception of a fault is not one; 16) that which is not an exception of a fault is one; 17) a fault is committed owing to a vulgar attitude (impolite) when it is not so; 18) a fault is not committed owing to a vulgar attitude when it is so.
"tassova khopana bhikkhussa bhikkhū honti anuvattakā vaggavādakā eko vā dve vā tayovā, te evaṃ vadeyyuṃ "māyasmanto etaṃ bhikkhu kiñci avacuttha, dhammavādī ceso bhikkhu, vinayavādi ceso bhikkhu, ahmākañce so bhikkhu chandañca ruciñce ādāya voharati, jānāti, no bhāsati, ahmāka' mpetaṃ khamatī" ti', te bhikkhū bhikkhuhi evassu vacanīyā "māyasmanto evaṃ avacuttha, na ce' so bhikkhu dhammavādī, na ce' so bhikkhu vinayavādī, māyasmantānampi saṃghabhedo ruccittha, sametāyasmantānaṃ saṃghena, samaggohi saṃgho sammodamāno avivadamāno ekuddeso phāyu viharatī" ti, evañca te bhikkhū bhikkhūhi vuccamānā tatheva paggahṇeyyuṃ, te bhikkhū bhikkhūhi yāvatatiyaṃ samanubhāsitabbā tassa paṭinissaggāya, yāvatatiyañce samanubhāsiyamānā taṃ paṭinissajjeyyuṃ, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce paṭinissajjeyyuṃ, saṃghādiseso."
Not to encourage a bhikkhu who works to divide the saṃgha. If one (or several) bhikkhus support another bhikkhu who works to divide the saṃgha, the bhikkhu(s) who notice or hear him doing so, must tell him: "Do not follow this bhikkhu." If he does not obey this interdiction, the witnessing bhikkhus must then reiterate this prohibition by giving him a lesson using a specific formula. If the prohibition (to side with the bhikkhu provoking a division in the saṃgha) is posed a second and then a third time, by means of the same formula, but the bhikkhu still doesn't reject his opinion, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
"bhikkhu paneva dubbacajātiko yoti uddesapariyāpannesu sikkhāpadesu bhikkhūhi sahadhammikaṃ vuccamāno attānaṃ avacanīyaṃ karoti "māmaṃ āyasmanto kiñci avacuttha kalyāṇaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā, ahampāyasmante na kiñci vakkhāmi kalyāṇaṃ vā pāpakaṃ vā, viramathāyasmanto mama vacanāyā" ti, so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi evamassa vacanīyo "māyasmā attānaṃ avacanīyaṃ akāsi, vacanīyamevā - yasmā attanaṃ karotu, āyasmāpi bhikkhū vadatu sahadhammena, bhikkhūpi āyasmantaṃ vakkhanti sahadhammena, evaṃ saṃvaddhā hi tassa bhagavato parisā yadidaṃ aññamañña vacanena aññamaññavuṭṭhāpanenā" ti evañcaso bhikkhu bhikkhūhi vuccamāno tatheva paggahṇeyya, so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi yāvatatiyaṃ samanubhasitabbo tassa paṭinissaggāya, yāvatatiyañce samanubhāsiyamāno taṃ paṭinissajjeyya, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce paṭinissajjeyya, saṃghādiseso."
Not to reject admonishments made on his behaviour. If a bhikkhu does not respect the rules of the vinaya, if he does something which is in discord with the vinaya, those among the bhikkhus living with him who see or hear him doing so, are obliged to make him notice his behaviours or actions, which are not proper and that he must abstain from them. If he responds by refusing to obey, the other bhikkhus must teach him a moral lesson by means of a specific formula. If after having admonished him in the same way for a second and then a third time, he refuses to give up his opinion, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
The bhikkhu must not refuse to listen to remarks made on his behaviour, even if he is the most respected one in the monastery and even if the remarks are made by a bhikkhu of less seniority, because if they are legitimate and he objects to them, he is likely to undergo the procedure entailing the saṃghādisesa 12.
"bhikkhu panena aññataraṃ gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā upanissāya viharati kuladūsako pāpasamācāro, tassa kho pāpakā samācārā dissanti ceva suyyantica, kuvāni ca tena duṭṭhāni dissanti ceva suyyanti ca. so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi evamassa vacanīyo "āyasmā kho kuladūsako pāpasamācāro, āyasmato kho pāpakā samācārā dissanti ceva suyyanti ca, kulāni āyasmatā duṭṭhāni dissanti ceva suyyanti ca, pakkamatāyasmā imahmā āvāsā, alaṃ te idha vāsenā" ti, evañca so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi vuccamāno te bhikkhū evaṃ vadeyya "chandagāmino ca bhikkhū, dosagāmino ca bhikkhū, mohagāmino ca bhikkhū, bhayagāmino bhikkhū, tādisikāya āpattiyā ekaccaṃ pabbājenti ekaccaṃ na pabbājenti" ti. so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi evamassa vacanīyo "māyasmā evaṃ avaca, na ca bhikkhū chandagāmino, na ca bhikkhū dosagāmino na ca bhikkhū, mohagāmino na ca bhikkhū, bhayagāmno, āyasmā kho kuadūsako pāpasamācāro, āyasmato kho pāpakā samācārā dissanti ceva suyyanti ca, kulāni cāyasmatā duṭṭhāni dissanti ceva suyyanti ca, pakkamatāyasmā imahmā āvāsā, alaṃ te idha vāsenā" ti, evañca so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi vuccamāno tatheva paggahṇeyya, so bhikkhu bhikkhūhi yāvatatiyaṃ samanubhāsitabbo tassa paṭinissaggāya, yāvatatiyañce samanubhāsiyamāno taṃ paṭinissajjeyya, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce paṭinissajjeyya, saṃghādiseso."
Not to spoil the confidence and the consideration that the people have for the dhamma. By seeing or by hearing a bhikkhu committing actions or indulging in behaviours that corrupt others' faith in dhamma, other bhikkhus are supposed to tell him: "Your behaviour is spoiling the confidence and the consideration that the people have for the dhamma. Your conduct is mediocre. We saw and heard the way you behave. You must leave from here. Do not stay in this monastery." Being expelled, if he refuses to leave and counteracts, the bhikkhus who see or hear him reacting this way, should expel him by teaching him a moral lesson a second time. If by the third time, he again refuses to obey, he should be brought before the saṃgha and be again pronounced thrice consecutively the discourse of expulsion. After this, if he still decides not to reject his opinion, it is proper to teach him a moral lesson by means of a specific formula. If after the second, then the third moral discourse pronounced by means of this formula, he doesn't step down from his stance, from this moment onward, it entails a meeting of the saṃgha.
The bhikkhus who offer presents to the dāyakas spoil the faith and the confidence that these people have in the dhamma. Buddha does not accept this kind of gift. He only pleads in favour of gifts that the dāyakas give to the bhikkhus as the former do believe in the benefits derived from their sīla, their wisdom. In the same way, he stands firmly opposed to exchanges and donations done between the laity and the bhikkhus, which are motivated by links established between recipients and duty bound persons.
The fact that the bhikkhus offer things to dāyakas is highly likely to deteriorate the respectful consideration that the latter have for the saṃgha, and thus their faith in the dhamma. The people who come close to the bhikkhus and who give offerings to them will no longer see any benefit in doing so and will not do so to the ones who cultivate a good sīla and who are realised. However, a bhikkhu can give some fruits that he possesses to his family members. Some bhikkhus can give food or some remaining hygienic products to the laity who perform sweeping, dish washing or gardening work, etc. In this case, there is no corruption of the faith, therefore no fault is being committed. To make sure that the bhikkhus do not commit faults, it is better that the laity carry out their duties first and then receive some food or something to drink. After having taken their meal, in order not to waste food, the bhikkhus should give their remaining food to the laity.
The bhikkhu who has performed an act of corruption should be expelled from the village or from the area where he lives. If he gives belongings or medical treatments all over the town, he must be expelled from this town. If he starts to criticise the saṃgha without leaving the area, he must be taken to the sīmā where the saṃgha will have to pronounce the appropriate formulas. After this, if he refuses to obey, the saṃgha must reprimand him. By the end of the third announcement of this formula, if this bhikkhu has still not decided to leave his area, he commits the saṃghādisesa 13.
Origin: Texts in Burmese language
Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi
Date of translation: 2000
Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou
Date of translation (into English): 2002
Update: 2005, June the 19th