"niṭṭhitacīvarasmiṃ bhikkhunā ubbhatasmiṃ kathine dasāhaparamaṃ atinekacīvaraṃ dhāretabbaṃ, taṃ atikkāmayato nissaggiaṃ pacittiaṃ."
Not to keep an extra robe more than ten days at a time. If a bhikkhu keeps his non-determined robe more than ten days, it entails a pācittiya and irremediably calls for the forfeiture of this robe. This robe must be momentarily handed over to another bhikkhu by means of an authoritative formula, and then the latter returns the robe. Then, the bhikkhu who has committed the nissaggiya must perform the desanā.
This only concerns the robes being worn, as old robes can be used as a curtain, a carpet, etc. Then a bhikkhu cannot determine a new robe as long as the determination of the old robe has not been overruled.
There are four exceptions according to which a bhikkhu can keep a non-determined robe more than ten days at a time:
This rule only concerns the robes being worn, because a bhikkhu could definitely own others that he uses as carpets, curtains, etc.
The bhikkhu who committed the fault of having kept an extra robe more than ten days at a time, must give up this robe nissaggiya before doing the desanā. The formula of this forfeiture can be uttered in pāḷi or in another language.
"idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ dasāhātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ, imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi".
"Venerable, I must give up this robe that I have kept more than ten days. This robe, I leave it to you."
After having relinquished the robe, it is necessary to purge the pācittiya caused by the nissaggiya by means of desanā. Afterwards, the bhikkhu who receives the robe nissaggiya returns it to the bhikkhu who has committed the nissaggiya while uttering in pāḷi, or another language:
"imaṃ cīvaraṃ āyasmato dammi."
" This robe Venerable, I return it to you."
"niṭṭhitacīvarasmiṃ bhikkhunā ubbhatasmiṃ kathine ekarattaṃpi ce bhikkhu ticīvarena vippavaseyya, aññatra bhikkhusammutiyā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to spend the night far from one of his three robes. Once a bhikkhu has managed to finish the tailoring of his robe, if he does no longer and doesn't come
across any inauspicious conditions at vassa's time, and he is not sick, spending the night without one of the three determined robes, it entails a pācittiya and irremediably calls for the forfeiture of this robe.
The formula of this abandonment can be recited in pāḷi or in another language.
"idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ rattivippavutthaṃ aññatra bhikkhusammutiyā nissaggiyaṃ, māhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi."
"Venerable, I must give up this robe that I left far behind me overnight. This robe, I leave it to you."
If the bhikkhu thinks that he will spend dawn far from one of his three robes, he can recite the formula meant for eliminating the determination of this robe and so, be free from nissaggiya...
If it concerns the double robe:
"etaṃ saṃghāṭiṃ paccuddharāmi."
I abolish the determination of this second robe."
If concerns the upper robe:
"etaṃ uttatāsaṅgaṃ paccuddharāmi."
"I abolish the determination of the upper robe."
If it concerns the lower robe:
"etaṃ antaravāsakaṃ paccuddharāmi."
"I abolish the determination of this lower robe."
A bhikkhu who spends a night until dawn without one of his three robes can re-determine it
the day after. In this case, he does not commit the nissaggiya 2.
"niṭṭhitacīvarasmiṃ bhikkhunā ubbhatasmiṃ kathine bhikkhuno paneva akālacīvaraṃ uppajjeyya, ākaṅkhamānena bhikkhunā paṭiggahetabbaṃ, paṭiggahetvā khippameva kāretabbaṃ, no ca' ssa pāripūri, māsaparamaṃ tena bhikkhunā taṃ cīvaraṃ nikkhipitabbaṃ ūnassa pārikapūriyā satiyā paccāsāya. tato ce uttari nikkhipeyya satiyāpi paccāsāya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to keep the clothing material meant for the tailoring of a robe more than one month at a time. If a bhikkhu succeeded in completing the tailoring of a new robe, if he does no longer or doesn't come across any inauspicious conditions during a vassa and if he is not sick, when some clothing materials are set apart and meant for a new robe, it must be sewed in the forthcoming ten days, (in accordance with the nissaggiya 1). If there is not enough clothing material and the bhikkhu is still expecting to receive some to finish this robe, the material can be kept for a month – a lunar month. If this period is exceeded, it entails a pācittiya and irremediably calls for the abandon of the unfinished robe. To purge this fault, it is advisable to give up the robe in the presence of another bhikkhu by means of the following formula in pāḷi or in another language:
"imaṃ me bhante akālacīvaraṃ māsātikkantaṃ nissaggiyaṃ, imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi."
"I must give up this robe "exceeding the allotted period" that I have kept more than a month. This robe Venerable, I leave it to you."
After having given up this robe, it is necessary to do the desanā to purify the pācittiya that is inherent to this fault.
Note: In today's world, given that the robes are already sewed (ready-made), the nissaggiya 3 has virtually no longer any chance to be committed.
"yo pana bhikkhu aññātikāya bhikkhuniyā purāṇacīvaraṃ dhovāpeyya vā rajāpeyya vā ākoṭāpeyyavā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to have a robe washed or dyed by a bhikkhunī who is not a relative. If a bhikkhu gets his "old" robe washed, dyed or dried through hitting by a bhikkhunī, who is not an offspring of his family up to the seventh generation, he commits a fault irremediably calling for the abandonment of his robe and entailing a pācittiya.
As soon as the robe has been worn or used as a pillow, it is considered as "old".
The seven generations of the family corresponds with his own generation, to the three who are backward and to the three subsequent ones after himself. Worth to come to know:
"yo pana bhikkhu aññātikāya bhikkhunīyā hatthato cīvaraṃ paṭiggahṇeyya aññatra pārivattakā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to accept a robe from a bhikkhunī who is not a relative. If, this not being an exchange, a bhikkhu accepts a robe from the hands of a bhikkhunī who is not a relative of his, it irremediably calls for the abandon of the robe and entails a pācittiya.
A piece of clothing material is considered as a "robe" as soon as it has a width of a quarter of a yard - about 20 centimetres / 9 inches - and an cubit's length - about 50 centimetres / 19 inches. If a bhikkhu receives from a bhikkhunī a clothing material measuring at least these dimensions, under the agreement of an exchange even only with a myrobolan (symbolic, because it is only a valueless small fruit), no fault is being committed by accepting it.
"yo pana bhikkhu aññātakaṃ gahapatiṃ vā gahapatāniṃ vā cīvaraṃ viññāpeyya aññtra samayā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ. tatthāyaṃ samayo, acchinnacīnaro vā hoti bhikkhu naṭṭhacīvaro vā, ayaṃ tattha samayo."
Not to ask someone who is not a relative for a robe. If a bhikkhu asks for a robe from a dāyaka who is not a relative of his and he gets one, this irremediably calls for the abandonment of this robe and entails a pācittiya. However, in case the robe is stolen or destroyed, it is permissible to ask for one from anybody. Also, when a dāyaka has invited a bhikkhu to ask from him, the latter can freely inform him of the need for the robe.
Here is the formula which is appropriate to say - in pāḷi or in another language - in front of one or several bhikkhus, in order to proceed to the abandonment of the robe nissaggiya:
"idaṃ me bhante cīvaraṃ aññātakaṃ gahapatikaṃ aññatra samayā viññāpitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ, imāhaṃ saṃghassa imāhaṃ āyasmantānaṃ (āyasmato) nissajjāmi."
"Venerable(s), I must give up this robe that I asked from a dāyaka who is not a relative of mine. This robe, I leave it to the saṃgha, venerable(s)."
After having given up the robe, the fault must be purged by means of desanā.
By forcing a dāyaka, who invited him to ask for what he requires, to offer a robe or a material that he does not want to give, a bhikkhu commits the nissaggiya 6. In this case, depending on the value of the material and the way the offering has been forced, the pārājika 2 may be committed.
"tañce aññātako gahapati vā gahapatānī vā bahūhi cīvarehi abhihaṭṭhu pavāreyya, santaruttaraharamaṃ tena bhikkhunā tato cīvaraṃ sāditabbaṃ, tato ce uttari sādiyeyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to ask for more than one upper robe and one lower robe in case of loss of the three robes. If a bhikkhu whose robes were stolen or destroyed asks from a dāyaka who is not a relative of his, for one or several robes in addition to one for the upper part and one for the lower part of the body, or of dimensions exceeding these two robes, it irremediably calls for the abandonment of the robe or robes received in addition to those that he was authorised to ask for, and it entails a pācittiya.
If a bhikkhu is deprived of his robes, whether they have been hidden, destroyed by fire, taken away by waters, bitten by rats, etc., he can ask for others from the dāyaka (even among those who have not set such a proposal) who are not relatives of his. However, it is advisable to be offered two robes at the most: an upper and a lower robe. The bhikkhu who accepts a larger number of them commits the nissaggiya 7.
The bhikkhus who had their robes stolen, or else destroyed in one way or another, can ask for robes from a dāyaka who is not a relative of his without exceeding the maximum permitted:
However, a bhikkhu who looses the only two robes that he possesses, can ask for two. It is also advisable to ask for more than two robes from a dāyaka who has previously expressed the request to ask him in case it was needed (robes or objects pertaining to the four requisites), and also from his relatives up to the seventh generation (please refer to the list in nissaggiya 4).
"bhikkhuṃ paneva uddissa aññātakassa gahapatissa vā gahapatāniyā vā cīvaracetāpannaṃ upakkhaṭaṃ hoti "iminā cīvaracetāpannena vīvaraṃ cetāpetvā itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ cīvarena acchādessāmī" ti, tatra ceso bhikkhu pubbe appavārito upasaṅkamitvā cīvare vikappaṃ āpajjeyya "sādhu vata maṃ āyasmā iminā cīvaracetāpannena evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā cīvaraṃ cetāpetvā acchādehī" ti kalyāṇakamyataṃ upādāya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ"
Not to ask for a good quality robe from a dāyaka who is saving money to offer one. If a bhikkhu asks for a robe of good quality from a dāyaka - who is not a relative of his, the latter having not expressed, to the former, the request to be asked for it, - who saves money to offer him one and this good quality robe costs more than the one supposed to be offered at first, that he asks him to exchange the robe that is meant to be offered or else to buy another, that he specifies the width or the length, that he asks for one that has a softer touch or else he specifies other features and if he gets the robe according to his wishes, it irremediably calls for the abandonment of this robe and entails a pācittiya.
If the value of the robe being purchased according to the specific request of the bhikkhu doesn't exceed the value of the one meant at first, the nissaggiya 8 is not being committed.
"bhikkhuṃ paneva uddissa ubhinnaṃ aññātakānaṃ gahapatīnaṃ vā gahapatānīnaṃ vā paccekacīvaracetāpannāni upakkhaṭāni honti "imehi mayaṃ paccekacīvaracetāpannehi paccekacīvarāni cetāpetvā itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ cīvarehi acchādessāmā" ti, tatra ceso bhikkhu pubbe appavārito upasaṅkamitvā cīvare vikappaṃ āpajjeyya "sādhu vata maṃ āyasmanto imehi paccekacīvaracetāpannehi evarūpaṃ vā evarūpaṃ vā vīvaraṃ cetāpetvā acchādetha ubhāva santā ekenā" ti kalyāṇakamyataṃ upādāya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."
Not to ask for a good quality robe from two dāyakas who are saving money to offer one each. If a bhikkhu proceeds to the house of one of the two dāyakas - none of them being relatives of his - the latter both willing to offer a robe, and this former having not been requested to do so asks them to get together to offer him a robe worth more that one of the two robes that these dāyakas had thought to offer at first, by imposing specifications as to the robe's width or length, if he gets offered this robe the way he asked for, he is obliged to relinquish it and in entails a pācittiya.
"bhikkhuṃ paneva uddissa rājā vā rājabhoggo vā brāhmaṇo vā gahapatiko vā dūtena cīvaracetāpannaṃ pahiṇeyya "iminā cīvaracetāpannena cīvaraṃ cetāpetvā itthannāmaṃ bhikkhuṃ cīvarena acchādehī" ti. so ce dūto taṃ bhikkhuṃ upasaṅkamitvā evaṃ vadeyya "idaṃ kho bhante āyasmantaṃ uddissa cīvaracetāpannaṃ ābhataṃ, paṭiggahṇātu āyasmā cīvaracetāpannaṃ" nti. tena bhikkhunā so dūto evamassa vacanīyo "na kho mayaṃ āvuso cīvaracetāpannaṃ paṭiggahṇāma, cīvarañca kho mayaṃ paṭiggahṇāma kālena kappiya" nti. so ce dūto taṃ bhikkhuṃ evaṃ vadeyya "atthi panāyasmato koci veyyāvaccakaro" ti. cīvaratthikena bhikkhunā veyyāvaccakaro niddisitabbo ārāmiko vā upāsako vā "eso kho āvuso bhikkhūnaṃ veyyavaccakaro" ti. so ce dūto taṃ veyyavaccakaraṃ saññāpetvā taṃ bhikkhuṃ upasaṇkamitvā evaṃ vadeyya "yaṃ kho bhante āyasmā veyyāvaccakaraṃ niddisi, saññatto so mayā, upasaṅkamatuāyasmā kālena, cīvarena taṃ acchādessatī. cīvaratthikena bhikkhave bhikkhunā veyyāvaccakaro upasakaṅkamitvā dvattikkhattuṃ codetabbo sāretabbo" attho me āvuso cīvarenā" ti, dvattikkhattuṃ codayamāno sārayamāno taṃ cīvaraṃ abhinipphādeyya, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, no ce abhinipphādeyya, catukkhattuṃ pañcakkhattuṃ chakkhattuparamaṃ tuhṇībhūtena uddissa ṭhātabbaṃ, catukkhattuṃ pañcakkhattuṃ chakkhattuparamaṃ tuhṇībūto uddissa tiṭṭhamāno taṃ cīvaraṃ abhinipphādeyya, iccetaṃ kusalaṃ, tato ce uttari vāyāmamāno taṃ cīvaraṃ abhinipphādeyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ. no ce abhinipphādeyya, yatassa cīvaracetāpannaṃ ātataṃ, tattha sāmaṃ vā gantabbaṃ, dūto vā pāhetabbo "yaṃ kho tuhme āyasmanto bhikkhuṃ uddissa cīvaracetāpannaṃ pahiṇittha, na taṃ tassa bhikkhuno kiñci atthaṃ anubhoti, yuñjantāyasmanto sakaṃ, mā vo sakaṃ vinassā" ti, ayaṃ sattha sāmīci."
Not to appoint a kappiya on his own, nor to be too pushy with a kappiya who is supposed to provide something. If a person willing to offer a robe to a bhikkhu, sends an emissary to hand over money to the said bhikkhu, and his emissary asks him to accept it explaining that it is meant for a robe, this bhikkhu must reply to him: "I do not accept money. I can only accept a robe."
This emissary can then say to the bhikkhu: "Venerable, I will refer the matter to a kappiya." This bhikkhu can appoint a kappiya to this emissary only if he is requested to do so or if he already has one.
The emissary proceeds to the kappiya and hands him over money saying: "Friend, this sum that I am giving you is meant to buy a robe for this particular bhikkhu", naming the bhikkhu referred to.
Once this emissary has been understood by the kappiya, he proceeds back to the bhikkhu by informing him: "Venerable, I made the said kappiya understand clearly what is meant; at the required time, you could go to him so as to get a robe."
By approaching a kappiya, this bhikkhu could tell him at the most: "I need a robe." He can repeatedly ask him so twice or thrice. After these reminders, if the robe is still not obtained, he could show up before this kappiya up to six times by remaining standing and silent. If at the end of the three oral utterances and having stood silent six times, the robe is not still not obtained, if this bhikkhu says or does anything else to get this robe and he finally gets it, it irremediably calls for the abandonment of the robe and entails a pācittiya.
If the bhikkhu has not succeeded in getting a robe - after three oral utterances have been made and having stood in silence six times -, it is advisable that he himself goes to the person wishing to offer the robe or sends an emissary to carry his message: "dāyaka, the money meant for this robe has been entrusted. Such-and-such bhikkhu didn't receive anything. dāyaka, please get your money back to make sure that you have not lost it."
The vinaya applies this rule in the same way regarding offerings of other kinds such as exercise books, food, medicine, lodging, etc.
Origin: Texts in Burmese language
Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi
Date of translation: 2000
Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou
Date of translation (into English): 2002
Update: 2005, June the 19th