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the 92 pācittiyas (2)

2nd part, bhūtagāma

pācittiya 11

"bhūtagāmapātabyatāya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to destroy plants. If a bhikkhu destroys or causes someone else to destroy plants that already reached their growing stage or completed their growth, he commits a pācittiya.

However, a bhikkhu who destroys a germ (root, stem, joint, bud or a seed) commits a fault but not a pācittiya. Concerning moss, being neither endowed of a bud, nor of leaves, it is considered as a germ. If, at the same time a root or a bud have grown out, it is already considered as a plant (or tree). By destroying a plant (or a tree), a bhikkhu commits the pācittiya 11. If a bhikkhu accidentally destroys small plants, he does not commit any fault.

Offering of fruits

In order to consume one of these plants or seeds (fruits and vegetables containing edible grains, roots, leaves, sugar cane, etc.), the vinaya foresees a way to make them permitted. There are three ways to make a fruit (or another plant) authorised:

  1. Notch done with a nail.
  2. Marking by means of fire (or by cooking, etc.)
  3. Cutting with a knife.

In order to make the fruit permitted, a kappiya (hence the term), layman or sāmaṇera, by touching a fruit (or another plant) must first of all announce to a bhikkhu that this fruit is authorised and only after (or at the same time), he damages it by marking it with fire, a scratch with a nail, or even by peeling and by completely cutting it into slices, but this fruit should at least have a small notch (or a burn). If the fruit is cut before announcing that it is authorised, it is suggested to renotch it after this announcement.

Once the fruit is allowed, the kappiya offers it to the bhikkhu who must receive it (touching from the base) whilst the kappiya holds it, or else, by receiving it in the container in which it is, or perhaps on the table on which it is served.

When a bhikkhu is offered a non authorised fruit, he can request a kappiya to make it authorised by pronouncing the adequate formula, in pāḷi or in another language...

"kappiyaṃ karohi."

 Please make this fruit authorised", "Could you make that this fruit become consumable", etc.

Before damaging the fruit (or by damaging it), the kappiya pronounces the adequate formula whether in pāḷi, or else in another language...

"kappiyaṃ bhante."

"Now being authorised, Venerable" or "You can eat it" or "It is ready to be consumed", etc.

If the fruits fit to be authorised are in large quantity, it is just sufficient to gather them in such a way that they all touch each other. Afterwards, by damaging one of these fruits, all the others are also made authorised.

If a non autorized fruit must be ground before being offered, as a matter of convenience, it is preferable that it is made authorised before grinding.

Once a fruit is made authorised, it remains as such forever. If an authorised fruit being offered to a bhikkhu is not eaten and the bhikkhu on purpose forsook it, this fruit can be re-offered to such or another bhikkhu another day. To that end, it doesn't need to be authorised a second time.

The fruits that need to be authorised by a kappiya are all those that contain edible seeds (strawberries, fresh peanuts, tomatoes...) or that can be damaged (grape, mandarins...) The cooked fruits in which the seeds are eaten no longer need to be authorised by a kappiya given the fact that the seeds are no longer fertile. The same applies to fruits whose seeds or grains are too young to be fertile.

The roots fit to give birth to a plant need a kappiya so as to be authorised (ginger, radish, carrots...)

The uncooked cereals also need a kappiya in order to be authorised (corn, wheat, millet, sunflower...)

pācittiya 12

"aññavādake, vihesake pācittiyaṃ."

Not to change the conversation when the saṃgha asks a question. If a bhikkhu bothers the community of the saṃgha, whether by giving a reply that does not correspond with the question being asked, or else by remaining silent, he commits a pācittiya.

It is suitable to utter a specific formula to the bhikkhu who replied in a diverted way or remained silent, while listening to the questions that were asked to him. If at the end of this reading, this bhikkhu does not give a convenient reply to the original question or remains silent, he commits the pācittiya 12.

pācittiya 13

"ujjhāpanake, khiyyanake, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to blame or slander a bhikkhu. If a bhikkhu utters blames or slanders against another bhikkhu, he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu directly expressing criticism addressed to another bhikkhu or spreading slanders about him by telling others, are two ways to commit the pācittiya 13.

Only a bhikkhu assigned to a task (post, duty, etc.) by the saṃgha causes the pācittiya 13 to be committed by the bhikkhu who slanders him.

Of course, the bhikkhu who blames a corrupt bhikkhu does not commit any fault.

pācittiya 14

"yo pana bhikkhu saṃghikaṃ mañcaṃvā pīṭhaṃ vā bhisiṃ vā kocchaṃ vā ajjhokāse santha ritvā vā santha rāpetvā vā taṃ pakkamanto neva uddhareyya, na uddharāpeyya, anāpucchaṃ vā gaccheyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to leave a mattress or a chair outside without arranging it back suitably. If a bhikkhu installs or causes someone else to install outside a material that belongs to the saṃgha, worthy to be used for sleeping or sitting – such as a bed, a chair, a mattress or a mat –, and upon leaving this spot, he does not arrange this material back into its original place, nor makes or tells someone who is fit to arrange it back to do so, he commits a pācittiya.

pācittiya 15

"yo pana bhikkhu saṃghike vihāre seyyaṃ santha ritvā vā santha rāpetvā vā taṃ pakkamanto neva uddhareyya, na uddharāpeyya, anāpucchaṃ vā gaccheyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to leave a couch that has been moved in the monastery. If, in a monastery, a bhikkhu himself moves or causes someone else to move a couch (bed, mattress, etc.) and upon leaving, he does not arrange it back suitably, nor causes someone else to arrange it back, or tells anyone who is fit to arrange it back, he commits a pācittiya.

By leaving a couch in an area that is protected from termites and rain, a bhikkhu does not commit any fault.

pācittiya 16

"yo pana bhikkhu saṃghike vihāre jānaṃ pubbupagataṃ bhikkhuṃ anupakhajja seyyaṃ kappeyya "yassa sambādho bhavissati, so pakkamissatī" ti etadeva paccayaṃ karitvā anaññaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to set a bhikkhu apart in order to make him leave. If, in a monastery belonging to the saṃgha, a bhikkhu sits or lies down on a place situated against another bhikkhu's spot in such a way that, by feeling uneasy owing to the lack of space, the latter leaves the place, he commits a pācittiya.

According to this rule, by any means whatsoever (lack of space, noise, smoke, etc.), a bhikkhu must in no case behave so that another bhikkhu, whoever he is, leaves his lodging spot, if the sole motive is to make him leave. However, under legitimate reasons, a bhikkhu can request other bhikkhus to move to another spot. However, there are three classes of bhikkhus to whom a bhikkhu can under no pretence make that request:

  • A bhikkhu having more seniority than oneself.
  • A sick bhikkhu (gilāna).
  • A bhikkhu who is devoted to the saṃgha (by teaching the dhamma, by doing various kinds of works for the monastery or for bhikkhus, etc.)

pācittiya 17

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuṃ kupito anattamano saṃghikā vihārā nikkaḍṭeyya vā nikkaḍṭāpeyya vā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to expel a bhikkhu from a lodging belonging to the saṃgha. If a bhikkhu expels or causes someone else to expel a bhikkhu from a lodging place belonging to the saṃgha, he commits a pācittiya.

In the same way, if a bhikkhu causes another bhikkhu to be expelled from a lodging belonging to the saṃgha by winning the case in a court of law, he commits the pācittiya 17.

A bhikkhu does not commit any fault by expelling a bhikkhu - or a sāmaṇera - if the latter

is violent or desobedient. However, it is not allowed to expel this type of person from the monastery's compound. No fault is committed, by expelling a bhikkhu – or a sāmaṇera – if the latter behaves badly, provokes big conflicts or refuses to obey to his instructors or preceptor. It is also allowed to throw out the belongings of such people.

pācittiya 18

"yo pana bhikkhu saṃghike vihāre uparivehāsakuṭiyā āhaccapādakaṃ mañcaṃ vā pīṭhaṃvā abhinisīdeyya vā abhinipajjeyya vā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to install oneself on a bed or a chair that is placed on a floor with broken planks. If a bhikkhu sits or lies down on a chair or a bed placed on the first floor of a house belonging to the saṃgha, and its floor shows holes opened to the lower floor - the planks not being completely installed - and this chair or this bed has removable legs or board, this bhikkhu commits a pācittiya.

This pācittiya is committed only if the four following factors apply:

  1. There are people on the flower floor.
  2. Each of these two floors has a height - from floor to ceiling - greater than that of a human being.
  3. The board of the bed (or legs of the chair) are not fixed up by means of pegs or anything else).
  4. The building belongs to the saṃgha.

pācittiya 19

"mahallakaṃ pana bhikkhunā vihāraṃ kārayamānena yāva dvārakosā aggaḷaṭṭhapanāya ālokasandhiparikammāya dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṃ appaharite ṭhitena adhiṭṭhātabbaṃ. tatoce uttari apaharite pi ṭhito adhiṭṭhaheyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to build a roof having more than three layers. If a bhikkhu himself builds or causes someone else to build a roof containing more than three layers, he commits a pācittiya.

Note: This method of erecting a roof by means of several layers is typically Indian. Henceforth, methods of construction being utilised in other countries are not concerned by the pācittiya 19.

pācittiya 20

"yo pana bhikkhu jānaṃ sappāṇakaṃ udakaṃ tiṇaṃ vā mattikaṃ vā siñceyya vā siñcāpeyya vā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to pour on the ground some water containing insects. If, knowing that there are insects or other worms in some water (living things that usually live in the water), a bhikkhu himself pours this water on the grass or on the ground, or causes someone else to pour it, he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu must not pour on the ground any water containing beings that live in it. In order to spare their lives, this water must be poured on a spot where there is water propitious to these beings. Admittedly, it is improper to pour, in a pool or a river, water that contains insects that fell but cannot live in it (such as ants), no fault is being committed if throwing this water on the ground or the grass.

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Origin: Texts in Burmese language

Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date of translation: 2000

Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou

Date of translation (into English): 2002

Update: 2005, June the 19th