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the 92 pācittiyas (6)

6th part, surāpāna

pācittiya 51

"surāmerayapane pācittiyaṃ."

Not to consume alcohol or other intoxicating substances. If a bhikkhu consumes any substance (drugs, medicaments, toxic products, etc.) likely to modify the ordinary structure of the mind (inebriation, modification of the sense of balance or instability, artificial ecstasy, etc.) or to intoxicate the body, he commits a pācittiya.

Remarks: This rule corresponds to the fifth of the ten precepts.

pācittiya 52

"aṅgulipatodake pācittiyaṃ."

Not to tickle. A bhikkhu commits a pācittiya whenever he touches someone with the intention of tickling.

pācittiya 53

"udake hasadhamme pācittiyaṃ."

Not to play in the water. If within a water body (river, stream, lake, pond, etc.) where the water level reaches at least the height of the eyes, a bhikkhu dives, floats, swims, amuses himself or becomes enthusiastic for this water in any manner, he commits a pācittiya.

If he plays by means of a boat, or by throwing or causing to float anything on cooking water, or within any container with water, he commits a dukkaṭa. Naturally, a sick bhikkhu entering the water for health reasons does not commit any fault. The same thing applies to a bhikkhu who swims only for the purpose of crossing a river that obstructs his way.

pācittiya 54

"anādariye pācittiyaṃ."

Not to lack respect. By lacking respect to a bhikkhu or to the dhamma, a bhikkhu commits a pācittiya.

If a bhikkhu admonishes another bhikkhu for not respecting the vinaya, for actions that are not correct, but the other bhikkhu keeps committing his incorrect actions without paying attention to those remarks, this is a lack of respect towards a bhikkhu.

If a bhikkhu tells another bhikkhu to observe a rule of the vinaya, and the other disappears or hides to keep on breaching this rule, this is a lack of respect towards the dhamma.

If a bhikkhu persists in behaving incorrectly disregarding the admonitions made by those bhikkhus, which back up with the vinaya, he commits a pācittiya. If a bhikkhu persists in behaving incorrectly, disregarding the admonitions made by those bhikkhus, which back up with the suttanta or the abhidhamma, he commits a dukkaṭa. If a bhikkhu persists in behaving incorrectly, disregarding the admonitions made by those sāmaṇera or lay persons, which back up with the vinaya, the suttanta or the abhidhamma, he commits a dukkaṭa.

pācittiya 55

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuṃ bhiṃsāpeyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to frighten a bhikkhu. A bhikkhu commits a pācittiya when he performs any action with the aim of frightening another bhikkhu, by means of a visual or auditive support (for any reason whatsoever).

pācittiya 56

"yo pana bhikkhu agilāno visibbanāpekkho jotiṃ samādaheyya vā samādahāpeyya vā aññtra tathārūpappaccayā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to light a fire, or have a fire lit. Except than for lighting (candle, oil lamp, etc.), cooking or reheating his food, if a bhikkhu who is not ill lights a fire, or has a fire lit for him, he commits a pācittiya.

Switching on a light or an electrical appliance is not considered lighting a fire. If a bhikkhu lights or revives a fire – voluntarily –, blows on a lit fire to rekindle it, adds anything to the fire (log, paper, etc.), or asks another person to light, maintain or rekindle a fire, he commits the pācittiya 56.

pācittiya 57

"yo pana bhikkhu orenaddhamāsaṃ nahāyeyya aññatra samayā, pācittiyaṃ. tatthāyaṃ samayo, diyaḍḍho māso seso gimhānanti vassānassa paṭhamo māso iccete aḍḍhateyyamāsā uṇhasamaso, pariḷāhasamayo, gilānasamaso, kammasamayo, addhānagamanasamayo, vātavuṭṭhisamayo, ayaṃ tattha samayo."

Do not wash more than twice a month if the body is not dirty. Except than in exceptional situations, if a bhikkhu washes his body before half a month has elapsed since his previous washing, he commits a pācittiya.

These are the exceptional circumstances that permit a bhikkhu to wash:

  • during the hot season (period of two and a half months from the May new moon until the August full moon);
  • in case of illness, fever or any other medical reason.;
  • after having carried out a physical work that has caused sweating;
  • after having made a trip of a distance of at least half a yūjanā – between five and six kilometres;
  • when dirty (dust, mud, sand, excessive transpiration, etc.)

Attention: This rule only applies in the "majjhima desa" region of modern northern India, where the Buddha lived. In fact, bhikkhus living outside this region can freely wash, without committing a fault.

pācittiya 58

"navaṃ pana bhikkhunācīvaralābhena tiṇṇaṃ dubbaṇṇakaraṇaṃ aññataraṃ dubbaṇṇakaraṇaṃ ādātabbaṃ nīlaṃ vā kaddamaṃ vā kāḷasāmaṃ vā. anādā ce bhikkhu tiṇṇaṃ dubbaṇṇakaraṇānaṃ aññataraṃ dubbaṇṇakaraṇaṃ navaṃ cīvaraṃ paribhuñceyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to utilise a robe without having applied one or more brown or black marks to it. When a bhikkhu obtains a new robe, he must apply a mark (kappabindu) on it at the moment of acquisition – if he is going to wear it –. This mark can be brown or black (the blue ink from a pen or any other dark colour, is equally acceptable). If he does not apply one of these marks and wears the robe, he commits a pācittiya.

There are five types of robes: the lower robe, the upper robe, the double robe, the rains-bath robe and the bandage robe. Each time a bhikkhu obtains one of these robes, he is obliged to apply a mark. All other pieces of cloth are exempted. Finally, he must determine it before being able to wear it.

Remarks: Nowadays, rains-bath robes and bandage robes are no longer used.

The marks can be made on only one corner of the robe, on two, on three or on all four corners of this robe. The mark's size (kappabindu) must be about the same as the pupil of a peacock or the back of a house-bug (insect). This mark must be done in a clearly visible way, in a round, full shape. It is possible, if so chosen, to make one or more marks side by side.

These marks are made only on those pieces of cloth that require determination.

pācittiya 59

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa vā bhikkhuniyā vā sikkhamānāya vā sāmaṇerassa vā sāmaṇeriyā vā sāmaṃ cīvaraṃ vikappetvā appaccuddhāraṇaṃ paribhuñceyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to wear a robe shared with a bhikkhu, a bhikkhunī, a sikkhamāna, a sāmaṇera or a sāmaṇerī, without the latter having pronounced in turn the formula for sharing this robe. After having done vikappanā of one of his robes with regard to another bhikkhu, a bhikkhunī, a sikkhamāna, a sāmaṇera or a sāmaṇerī, a bhikkhu who wears this robe without the beneficiary of the vikappanā having done vikappanā in return, or paccuddhāraṇa (rejection of the robe), he commits a pācittiya.

The vikappanā procedure

The vikappanā is a procedure that a bhikkhu performs in order to assign anything to another bhikkhu, a bhikkhunī, a sikkhamāna, a sāmaṇera or a sāmaṇerī. This permits totally validating the gift of one or more things to another bhikkhu or any other person, and ensures that it has been done in accordance with the vinaya. In a few cases, this is compulsory. When a bhikkhu wishes to share a robe (in addition to the only one that he is authorised to determine as a worn robe), he can do vikappanā with regard to the chosen person, by pronouncing the appropriate formula. So that the first bhikkhu can wear this robe, the other must do vikappanā in return by pronouncing another formula. Thus, both bhikkhus can share this robe.

There are two types of vikappanā that a bhikkhu can perform either by pronouncing the adequate vikappanā formula on his own, either by having this formula being pronounced by a bhikkhu expert on the vinaya.

If he shares a robe with a bhikkhu who is present:

"imaṃ cīvaraṃ tuyhaṃ vikappemi"

If he shares several robes with a bhikkhu who is present:

"imāni cīvarāni tuyhaṃ vikappemi"

If he shares a robe with a bhikkhu who is away:

"etaṃ cīvaraṃ tuyhaṃ vikappemi"

If he shares several robes with a bhikkhu who is away:

"etāni cīvarāni tuyhaṃ vikappemi"

(We do consider the separation distance remote as soon as it exceeds two cubits and a span, around 120 centimetres). Next, the beneficiary of the vikappanā must in turn do vikappanā so that the bhikkhu can wear this robe. If he wears it and the vikappanā has not been done in return, he commits the pācittiya 59. To do the vikappanā in return, it is convenient to pronounce the following formula:

"mayhaṃ santakaṃ paribhuñca vā visajjehi vā yathāpaccayaṃ karohi"

pācittiya 60

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhussa pattaṃ vā cīvaraṃ vā nisīdanaṃ vā sūcigharaṃ vā kāyabandhanaṃ vā apanidheyya vā apanidhāpeyya vā antamaso hasāpekkhopi, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to hide another bhikkhu's belongings. If for having fun, making a joke or out of spite, a bhikkhu hides or causes someone else to hide a determined (used) bowl, a determined (worn) robe, a nissīdana, a needle, or a belt – and if this object belongs to another bhikkhu –, he commits a pācittiya.

By hiding other things, such as a bowl's bag, a non-determined robe, or things belonging to some sāmaṇeras or lay people, a bhikkhu commits a dukkaṭa. By putting things back that were badly put back, or provisionally setting things aparts so as to prevent them from being lost or stolen, a bhikkhu does not commit any offence.

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Origin: Texts in Burmese language

Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date of translation: 2000

Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou

Date of translation (into English): 2002

Update: 2005, June the 19th