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the 92 pācittiyas (9)


9th part, ratana
 

pācittiya 83

"yo pana bhikkhu rañeñā khattiyassa muddhābhisittassa anikkhantarājake aniggataratanake pubbe appaṭisaṃvidito indakhīlaṃ atikkāmeyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to enter the king's chamber without warning. If, without having previously warned of his arrival, a bhikkhu enters the bedroom in which there is a king of royal blood and a queen, even if the wall is replaced by a screen (curtain), he commits a pācittiya.

pācittiya 84

"yo pana bhikkhu ratanaṃ vā ratanasammataṃ vā aññatra ajjhārāmā vā ajjāvasathā vā uggaṇheyya vā uggaṇhepeyya vā, pācittiyaṃ. rathanaṃ vā pana bhikkhunā ratanasammataṃ vā ajjhārāme vā ajjhāsavathe vā uggahetvā vā uggahāpetvā vā nikkhipitabbaṃ "yassa bhavissati, so harissatī" ti, ayaṃ tattha sāmīci."

Not to collect and stow away a precious object outside a monastery or the area where one lives. If a bhikkhu himself collects or makes others collect a valuable object or anything considered as such, in a place situated outside the area there he dwells, he commits a pācittiya.

When picking up a valuable object or anything considered as such within the precinct of a monastery, or any other place where he dwells, a bhikkhu can only do this for the purpose of allowing its owner to find it again easily.

A bhikkhu has the duty to collect or have collected a valuable object lost in the place where he resides. If he neglects this duty, he commits a dukkaṭa, unless he has not seen the object. A bhikkhu is allowed to collect a lost object of value and put it to a side, only with the intention to allow its owner to come and retrieve it. If a bhikkhu places a valuable object to a side because he has been asked to, or to render consignment service, he commits the pācittiya 84.

Whether or not he takes it with his hand, if a bhikkhu collects or keeps a valuable object outside his monastery, unless it is the property of his own mother, he commits the pācittiya 84. By picking up a useful (but not valuable) object belonging to a relative, in any place, a bhikkhu does not commit a fault.

pācittiya 85

"yo pana bhikkhu santaṃ bhikkhuṃ anāpucchā vikāle gāmaṃ paviseyya aññatra tathārūpā accāyikā karaṇīyā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to enter a town or village after noon without having asked for approval from another bhikkhu. Unless it is for something urgent, if without another bhikkhu in the area having given his approval, a bhikkhu enters a village after noon, he commits a pācittiya.

If a bhikkhu risks being exposed to some danger, he does not commit the pācittiya by entering a village after noon has passed and without the approval of another bhikkhu.

If there is no urgency, for a bhikkhu to be able to enter a town or village, he is obliged to ask for the approval from another bhikkhu, in Pali or using any other language.

"vikāle gāmappavesanaṃ āpucchāmi."

"I request your approval to enter the village (town) after noon."

If this bhikkhu consents, the other can go to the village or town. If two bhikkhus wish to meet in a village after noon, they can enter it if they have previously asked each other for approval.

pācittiya 86

"yo pana bhikkhu aṭṭhimayaṃ vā dantamayaṃ vā visāṇamayaṃ vā sūcigharaṃ kārāpeyya, bhedanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to make or have made a needle box in ivory, bone or horn. If a bhikkhu has such a needle box made, he must relinquish it, and he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu must not himself make, or have made by someone else, or accept, a needle box in bone, in ivory or in horn. If so, when he makes it or has it made, he commits a dukkaṭa. When he obtains this box finished (by himself or from the person from whom the work has been commissioned), he commits the pācittiya 86. This pācittiya is called a "pācittiya requiring destruction", because the acquired object must be destroyed and cast away before the purification of the fault by means of the desanā.

pācittiya 87

"navaṃ pana bhikkhunā mañcaṃ vā pīṭhaṃ vā kārayamānena aṭṭhaṅgulapādakaṃ kāretabbaṃ sugataṅgulena aññtra heṭṭhimāya aḍḍaniyā, taṃ atikkāmayato chedanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to make – or have made – or use beds or chairs of a height greater than 65 centimetres. A bhikkhu must not make or have made a bed with legs exceeding the height of eight hand widths (without counting the board). Otherwise, he must cut (saw) the legs to the correct size and he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu must not make or have made a chair or a bed with legs exceeding a height of eight hand widths. In exceeding this height, a bhikkhu commits the pācittiya 87. This pācittiya is called a "pācittiya requiring cutting of the excess", because the excessively high furnishing must be cut to the proper height before purification of the fault by means of desanā.

In measuring the height of the bed or chair, the thickness of the wood is not taken into account. If someone offers a bhikkhu a stool, a chair or a bed in which the legs are too high, this bhikkhu must cut off the excess height of the legs. Alternatively, he can sink the furnishing a little into the soil.

Remarks: This rule corresponds partly to the ninth of the ten precepts.

pācittiya 88

"yo pana bhikkhu mañcaṃ vā pīṭhaṃ vā tūlonaddhaṃ kārāpeyya, uddālanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to use mattresses, cushions or cloths filled with cotton or kapok. If a bhikkhu fills or has someone fill a cloth with kapok (or cotton), to cover a bed or plank or furniture on which he lies or sits, he must take out this kapok, and he commits a pācittiya.

The cotton or kapok contained in the cloth covering the plank or piece of furniture (bed, chair, stool, etc.) must be taken out completely before purifying the fault by means of the desanā. Those bhikkhus who are not ill – not gilāna – must not sit or lie on furniture, mattresses or cloth filled with kapok or any other thing to make them comfortable

Remarks: This rule corresponds partly to the ninth of the ten precepts.

pācittiya 89

"nisīdanaṃ pana bhikkhunā kārayamānena pamāṇikaṃ kāretabbaṃ, tatrikaṃ pamāṇaṃ, dīghaso dve vidatthiyo sugatavidatthiyā, tiriyaṃ diyaḍḍhaṃ, dasā vidatthi, taṃ atikkāmayato chedanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to use a sitting cloth of more than 2.20 metres by 1.72 metres and with a flange over 1.15 metres of width. The nissīdana that a bhikkhu makes must have a length of four cubits and one span, a width of three cubits and nine fingers, and a fringe, fixed to a border, of two cubits and six fingers. The bhikkhu who obtains a nissīdana of a size above the allowed measurements commits the pācittiya 89 and must cut the excess cloth before purification of the fault by means of the desanā.

The nissīdana was initially used to protect from eventual involuntary emissions of semen during the night. It also served as a serviette during meals, by turning a border over the legs, for protection against accidental food spillage. Its other function – that for which it is mainly used nowadays – is as a rug to sit on the ground or on anything that could be dirty. For this reason, a bhikkhu should always carry it on his shoulders when going out from his lodging.

Remarks: Nowadays, the nissīdana no longer have a flange and their size rarely exceeds 70 or 80 square centimetres.

pācittiya 90

"kaṇḍuppaṭicchādiṃ pana bhikkhunā kārayamānena pamāṇikā kāretabbā, tatridaṃ pamāṇaṃ, dīghaso catasso vidatthiyo sugatadatthiyā, tiriyaṃ dve vidatthiyo, taṃ atikkāmayatochedanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to make or have made a "bandage robe" of more than 4.50 metres by 2.20 metres. A "bandage robe" that a bhikkhu makes for himself must not exceed a length of nine cubits and a width of four cubits and a span. If a bhikkhu obtains a "bandage robe" exceeding these measurements, he must cut the cloth in excess, and he commits a pācittiya.

The "bandage robe" is a cloth used as protection against eruption of substances from all kinds of wounds and abscesses that could dirty the robe. This cloth could be used applied on a sore located only in the area between the navel and the knees. Outside this zone, it is not proper to use a "bandage robe".

Remarks: Nowadays, this type of bandage is no longer used.

pācittiya 91

"vassikasāṭikaṃ pana bhikkhunā kārayamānena pamāṇikā kāretabbā, tatridaṃ pamāṇaṃ, dīghaso cha vidatthiyo sugatavidatthiyā tiriyaṃ aḍḍhayyā, taṃ atikkāmayatochekaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to make or have made a rains robe of more than 6.50 metres by 2.70 metres. A rains robe that a bhikkhu makes for himself must not exceed a length of thirteen cubits and a width of five cubits and one span. If a bhikkhu makes himself a rains robe exceeding these measurements, he must cut off the excess cloth and he commits a pācittiya.

A rains robe must be used only in case of rain. It must be determined as such when it is used in rainy weather. If not, the vikappanā or the determination as a simple cloth (parikkhārasoḷa) must be done, and the robe can be put to a side. This rains robe must be of about the same colour as the other robes.

Remarks: Nowadays, this type of robe is no longer used.

pācittiya 92

"yo pana bhikkhu sugatacīvarappamāṇaṃ cīvaraṃ kārāpeyya, atirekaṃ vā, chedanakaṃ pācittiyaṃ. tatridaṃ sugatassa sugatacīvarappamāṇaṃ, dīghaso nava vidatthiyo sugatavidatthiyā, tiriyaṃ cha vidatthiyo, idaṃ sugatassa sugatacīvarappamāṇanti."

Not to make or have made a robe of more than 10 metres by 6.50 metres. A robe that a bhikkhu makes for himself must not have a size equal to or larger than that of the Buddha – that is a length of twenty cubits and a width of thirteen cubits. If a bhikkhu makes a robe exceeding these measurements, he must cut off the excess cloth and he commits a pācittiya. By making a robe, or having one made, of a size exceeding the authorised measurements to offer to another bhikkhu, or by using a robe made by someone else, a bhikkhu commits a dukkaṭa.

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Origin: Texts in Burmese language

Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date of translation: 2000

Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou

Date of translation (into English): 2002

Update: 2005, June the 19th