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N Part, chapter, section.


M [Kitchen].


T [Cause / Support, help].


M Distinction made between causes and effects.


M Distinct.


M [Distinct (pacceka); The one who knows (buddha)] Being who reaches the knowledge of the four nobles truths by himself, but who remains alone, being devoid of the capacity to teach dhamma to others. A paccekabuddha appears– by definition– apart from a sāsana.


M [Fact to cancel a determination].


M Fault due to a bhikkhu's negligence that can be purified by means of the desanā. There are 92 pācittiyas.

See also: The 92 pācittiyas


M [Main, essential].


M Main element necessary to the realisation of nibbāna.


M [that which is provided with sīla (pakatatta); being who renounces (bhikkhu)]. bhikkhu who has a pure and blameless sīla.


M Part, side, wing. Period of rising and waning moon.


Dialect spoken by the contemporaries of the Buddha in the north of modern India. pāḷi was a languages particularly adapted to philosophical doctrines and legal affairs.

Buddha gave the whole of his teaching in pāḷi.

See also: The pali characters


M [Impediment, inconvenience, disturbance]. Circumstances or a situation not allowing one to be satisfied (lodging, food, clothing or hygiene).


M/F/N [Fact to kill].


T Wisdom.


F [Designation, term of calling]. That which is conventional.


M [Wisdom (pañña); proprietor, owner (inda)]. The one who is endowed with wisdom.


S [Specialist].


T [That which does generate loss]. Serious fault causing the loss of the status of bhikkhu for life. There are four pārājikas (sexual intercourse, theft, murder, claim about non-obtained realisations). There are 4 pārājika.

  1. Refrain from having sexual intercourse.
  2. Refrain from stealing.
  3. Refrain from commiting murder.
  4. Refrain from claiming attainments of stages of pure mental concentration that have not been achieved.

See also: The 4 pārājikas


M [Absolute reality]. The universe is constituted with four paramatthas.


F [Noble practice, noble accomplishment]. Positive action by means of the body, speech or the mind, which is motivated by a will to progress on the path to perfection, the path of dhamma.

Only when the development of the pāramīs reaches the peak of its maturity can nibbāna be experienced. There are 10 pāramīs:

The 10 pāramī
Name in Pali Description
1 dāna pāramī Forsaking one's goods and possessions (animals or non living objects) by making gifts.
2 sīla pāramī Control of one's actions and speeches in order to refrain from evil actions.
3 nekkhamma pāramī Renouncement of the life of the laity to the sake of a solitary life (bhikkhu, ermite).
4 pañña pāramī Development of knowledge and understanding through study and analytical reflection. Imparting knowledge to others. Making use of one's wisdom so as to take the highest benefits from it.
5 vīriya pāramī Effort to do good to others as much as possible and to the peril one's life.
6 khantī pāramī Establishment of an always perfect tolerance, whatever, on others' behalf, performed actions and uttered speeches might be.
7 saccā pāramī Truthfulness (to tell only what is fair).
8 adhitthāna pāramī Decision to solely perform beneficial actions and to stick to them.
9 mettā pāramī Cultivation of a state of mind turned towards others' happiness, to practice love towards all beings.
10 upekkhā pāramī Rejection of hatred and adoration. Not to stick to an idea in particular. Keeping one's mind even-minded.


M [Surrounding (para); to address some reproaches (anuvāda)]. The fact to be addressed some reproaches by others.


M Follower of a heretical school of thought. Monks affiliated to a school of thought teaching rituals rooted in false views (miccha ditthi).


N In a well determined manner, quite accurate.


M Fact to repeatedly indulge into healthy and positive actions such as generosity, benevolence and virtue (concentration is not involved here).


N [Definitive disappearance of all mental defilements]. As soon as nibbāna (see this word) is experienced without the slightest attachment remaining , physical and mental phenomena do no longer have reasons to reappear; This is parinibbāna.

See also: parinibbāna


F Verbal attestation delivered to the saṃgha by a bhikkhu, to indicate that his sīla has been purified. This procedure permits to exempt a bhikkhu from participating again in the uposatha after having done it already in another monastery.


F [Barrier, protection]. Formula that is recited so as to bestow a general protection. There do exist several kinds of parittas. Notably, the paritta udaka and the paritta sutta:

The paritta udaka is meant for an effulgence of protection by means of water in direction of which the protective formula is being recited.

The paritta sutta is recited according to a procedure that is somehow similar, except that a thread is being utilised so as to disseminate the protection.


M [Fulfilment of an obligation (vasa) at a predetermined spot (pari)]. Obligation fulfilled to the sake of purifying oneself from a saṃghādisesa.

Prior to be fit for full reintegration within the saṃgha, the bhikkhu who has committed a saṃghādisesa must perform the parivāsa: He must sleep in a building located apart and into which there should be no other bhikkhus. If he leaves the monastery's compound, he must be accompanied with another bhikkhu and cannot go away from him of a distance that exceeds twelve cubits.


F [Study of the dhamma].


N [Calm].


M [Inhaled air].


N [Bowl].


F [Earth].


N [Concentration at its deepest stage (paṭibhāga); image, object (nimitta)]. Meditation object that is perfectly clear, steady and devoid of any element causing disturbance.


F Analytical understanding of well structured rhetoric and discourses (oral and written), destined to make the dhamma easily understood by others.


Conditioned production of the twelve interdependent causes. It is the explanation of the anatta process, it rules over the appearance and disappearance of each phenomenon.

See also: paticca samuppāda


[That which is admitted, acknowledged]. Offence admitted openly. There are 4 pāṭidesanīyas.

See also: The 4 pāṭidesanīyas


F Contemplation of the loathsome character of the body. Observation of the 32 parts of the body (the 32 koṭṭhāsas).


N [Fact to be careful about sth, to take care of]. Rule designed for watching one's behaviour.

Set of the two hundred twenty seven rules of conduct and training that each bhikkhu is supposed to observe. These rules are not subject to a preestablished disciplinary code, they have only been gradually established, as faults were commited from time to time.

See also: The pātimokkha


[Method, path, way to do].


F [Putting into practice of the dhamma].


M [To dwell (patirīpa); region (desa); appropriate (vāsa)]. Spot that is a propitious place to live. Region, climate and conditions, which are appropriate for living without difficulties.


F Analytical understanding. This understanding can take place only upon reaching the stage of arahanta, but it is not systematic.


F Exasperation, general fed up with the way things are going, complete disinterest towards the world.


M [Realisation of the dhamma] (nibbāna).


N [Fact to eat with a bowl (pattapiṇḍndika); state of mind (aṅga)]. (dhutaṅga 6).

Practice taught by Buddha, but which is not compulsory according to vinaya and which lies in eating only by means of one's bowl, without utilising other utensils.


F Closing day of the vassa.

Traditionally, this day gives rise to a great ceremony of offerings. The pavāranā takes place on the day following the full moon of October.


N [Interdiction, refusal].

See also: pācittiya 35


M Being living in the compound of apāya worlds, situated between the world of animals and the world of hells.


N [Fruit] Benefit, effect, consequence.


N Knowledge of an effect out of suspicion. Fact to guess the consequence of something owing to fact of knowing its causes.


F [Coarse language]. Abusive, vulgar and rude language, .


M [Tactile sense]. Contact, tactile sense.


[Food offered to the bhikkhus].


[Food being offered to the bhikkhus (pinda); bowl (pāta)] Fact to go to receive (concerning a bhikkhu) some food (within the bowl), while silently waiting in front of houses, holding the bowl in front of oneself, ready to lift up the lid as soon as someone comes close to oneself for offering food.


F [Slanderous speech, calumny, slandering].


M Joy, enthusiasm. Sensation of physical and mental lightness given by the purity of consciousness.


N [In advance (pubba); work (karaṇa)]. Preparations that are to take place within the sīmā before the uposatha:

  • Sweeping the floor (or the ground) of the sīmā.
  • In occurence of a dark sky or during the night, lighting of the sīmā.
  • Putting at disposal clean water at the entrance of the sīmā.
  • Spreading sitting mats or carpets within the sīmā.

See also: The four pubbakaranas


M [Related to a premonition].


N [In advance (pubba); case (kicca)]. Things that are to be reported at the beginning of the uposatha:

  • Report of the chanda.
  • Report of the pārisuddhi.
  • Report of the date.
  • Report of the number of bhikkhus present within the sīmā.
  • Report of that which the bhikkhunīs need in the field of the teaching.

See also: The five pubbakiccas


F [Before (pubbe); action (kata); merit (puññatā)]. Merit owing to former actions.


N Knowledge enabling to see past lives.


Ordinary being (the opposite of an "ariyā"). A puthujjana is a being who hasn't experienced nibbāna yet, who is still under the power of false views.

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Author: Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date: 2001

Translator: Thierry Lambrou

Update: 2005, June the 20th