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the 30 nissaggiyas pācittiyas (3)

3rd part, patta

nissaggiya 21

"dasāhaparamaṃ atirekapatto dhāretabbo. taṃatikkāmayato nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to keep an extra bowl more than ten days at a time. If a bhikkhu, during a period exceeding ten days, keeps a bowl, in addition to the one that he determined as his bowl, this extra bowl must be relinquished and it entails a pācittiya.

Without determining and abandoning it, an extra bowl can be kept only ten days at the most. Beyond that limit, it must be relinquished to another bhikkhu. In this case, the bhikkhu utters this formula:

"ayaṃ me bhante patto dasāhātikkanto nissaggiyo, imāhaṃ āyasmato nissajjāmi."

"This extra bowl that I kept more than ten days must be relinquished. Venerable, this bowl, I abandon it to you."

Once this relinquishment is done, the bhikkhu, while accepting the bowl, must remit back to the guilty bhikkhu, who should either determine this bowl, or else definitely abandon it to another bhikkhu.

nissaggiya 22

"yo pana bhikkhu ūnapañcabandhanena pattena aññaṃ navaṃ pattaṃ cetāpeyya, nissaggiyaṃ, tena bhikkhunā so patto bhikkhuparisāya nissajjitabbo. yo ca tassā bhikkhuno padātabbo "ayaṃ te bhikkhu patto yāva bhedanāya dharetabbo" ti, ayaṃ tattha sāmīcī."

Not to ask for a new bowl as long as the present one does not have at least five cracks or has not become unusable. If a bhikkhu asks – and receives – a new bowl, while the previous doesn't have at least five cracks or fissures, or hasn't become unusable yet, it must be relinquished and it entails a pācittiya. This bowl must be relinquished to the saṃgha (all the bhikkhus of the monastery) by remitting it to the eldest among the brethren. In turn, the eldest remits one of his bowls to the second bhikkhu (in rank of seniority) who will remit one to the next and so on. The worst bowl – which is extra to all others – must be remitted to this guilty bhikkhu who will have to utilise it until it breaks. He must also relinquish his original bowl. To give up the new bowl, the guilty bhikkhu will say:

"imaṃ me bhante patto ūnapaṅca bandhanena pattena cetāpito nissaggiyo, imāhaṃ saṃghāssa nissajjāmi."

"Venerable, it is convenient that I give up this bowl that I asked for, knowing that mine doesn't bear five cracks yet. This bowl, I leave it to the saṃgha."

Once this bowl has been abandoned, the bhikkhu must purify the pācittiya by doing the desanā.

If the crack of an earthen bowl has a length measuring at least two phalanxes, a small hole must be punctured on each side so that a string, being utilised as fixation, could pass through. If the bowl does not have at least ten phalanxes, a new bowl cannot be claimed. If there are holes where food can be stuck in, they must be sealed with graphite or resin. If a grain of semolina can pass through a hole, the determination of the bowl is abolished; it means that the bowl can no longer be considered as such. And so, if a hole is enlarged, it must be sealed with the help of a sheet, or an iron filing, etc.

Naturally, a bhikkhu can accept a supplementary bowl if a dāyaka offers it to him spontaneously, even if the present bowl is still in good shape.

nissaggiya 23

"yāni kho pana tāni gilānānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ paṭisāya nīyāni bhesajjāni, seyyathidaṃ, sappi navanītaṃ telaṃ madhu phāṇitaṃ, tāni taṭiggahetvā sattāharamaṃ sannidhikārakaṃ paribuñjitabbāni. taṃ atikkāmayato nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to keep medicinal foods more than seven days at a time. If a bhikkhu undergoing a stage of bad health, who is allowed to store and use medicinal foods such as butter, fat, oil, honey, molasses or sugar for a period of seven days at the most, consumes one of these stored foods after this period, the product must be forsaken and it entails a pācittiya.

These medicinal foods must be accepted within the limits of what can be consumed during a period of seven days. If these medicinal foods cannot be totally consumed during this period, before the seven days have expired, the bhikkhu must make a determination by saying: "I will eat - or drink - no more of this product." If this (or these) food (s) is not absorbed but only smeared, it can be stored beyond seven days. It is improper to consume these foods if it is only due to hunger or to simply satisfy a desire (gluttony). These medicinal foods are only permitted in the following cases: lack of energy, weakness, illness due to winds circulating in the body and other health problems of this kind. A bhikkhu suffering these health problems is free to use these products at any moment of the day or night.

Among the five types of medicinal foods, those that are consumed must be filtered prior to it, to make sure that they do not contain any solid particles. Nowadays, apart from sugar cane, all that is extracted from sugar such as palm juice, cubes of palm sugar and molasses of palm (usually in the shape of irregular balls) also belong to the category of honeys, sugars and molasses. Sick bhikkhus are allowed to use sugar cubes and hard molasses. As to the bhikkhus who do not have health problems, in case of hunger, they are allowed to consume sugars or molasses in the afternoons,. However they can do it only in liquid form.

A healthy bhikkhu must give up this type of liquid the same day and cannot accept solids in the afternoon. At the end of the seven days, an unhealthy bhikkhu must abandon and get someone to re-offer him these products if he needs to be able to consume them for another seven days.

nissaggiya 24

"" māso saso gihmāna" nti bhikkhunā vassikasāṭikacīvaraṃ pariyesitabbaṃ, "addhamāso seso gihmāna" nti katvā nivāsetabbaṃ. orenace "māso seso gihmāna" nti vassikasāṭidacīvaraṃ pariyeseyya, ore "na ddhamāso seso gihmāna" nti katvā nivāseyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to get a bath robe, sewed, dyed or brought before the full moon. If a bhikkhu searches for a material to make a "bath robe" between the full moons of October and May, if he sews or dyes a "bath robe" between the full moons of October and June, or if he determines or wears one between the full moons of October and July, he must abandon this robe and it entails a pācittiya.

A "bath robe" is a material worn by a bhikkhu while taking his shower under the rain (during the monsoon, between June and October).

The bathrobe nissaggiya must be relinquished to the saṃgha, or to a group of bhikkhus, or to a single bhikkhu. Afterwards, the pācittiya must be purged by means of desanā. Here is the formula that must be pronounced either in pāḷi, or else in another language, when the "bath robe" is abandoned.

"idaṃ me bhante vissikasāṭikacīvaraṃ atirekamāse sese gihmānepariyiṭṭhaṃ, atirekaddhamāse sese gihmāne katvā paridahitaṃ nissaggiyaṃ, imāhaṃ saṃghāssa nissajjāmi."

"Venerable(s), I must abandon this bathrobe that I searched for and obtained outside the five authorised months / which I sew, dyed, wore beyond the four authorised months. This robe, I leave to you."

Afterwards, the bhikkhu must abandon this robe.

nissaggiya 25

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhusa sāmaṃ cīvaraṃ datvā kupito anattamano acchindeyya vā acchindāpeyya vā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to take back a robe after having offered it. If a bhikkhu, after having offered a robe to another bhikkhu, out of anger, or else out of annoyance, takes back this robe or causes someone else to take it back, this robe must be forsaken and it entails a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu who takes back a robe that he has offered to another bhikkhu, while considering it belongs to him, commits the nissaggiya 25. If the first bhikkhu takes back something that he gave to a second bhikkhu and the latter knows that this thing was given to him, depending on the value of the object, the first bhikkhu may commit the pārājika 2. In all cases, the robe must be given back to its owner.

nissaggiya 26

"yo pana bhikkhu sāmaṃ suttaṃ viññāpetvā tantavāyehi cīvaraṃ vāyāpeyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to get the robe woven. If whilst asking for thread, a bhikkhu gets a robe woven and he receives it, he must abandon it and it entails a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu must not ask for a large quantity of thread from a person who is not a relative of his or who has not invited him to tell what he needed. If a bhikkhu causes one of these persons to get a robe woven by a weaver, he commits the nissaggiya 26.

nissaggiya 27

"bhikkhuṃ paneva uddissa aññātako gahapati vā gahapatānī vā tantavāyehi cīvaraṃ vāyāpeyya, tatra ceso bhikkhu pubbe appavārito tantavāye upasaṅamitvā cīvare viappaṃ āpajjeyya "idaṃ kho āvuso cīvaraṃ maṃ uddissa viyyati, āyatañca karotha vitthatañca appitañca suvītañca suppavāyitañca suvilekhitañca suvitacchitañca karothi, appeva nāma mayampi āyasmantānaṃ kiñcimattaṃ anupadajjeyyāmā" ti. evañca so bhikkhu vatvā kiñimattaṃ anupadajjeyya antamaso piṇḍapātampi, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to ask for a robe to be woven bigger and of better quality than the one that the donor had planned to give. If, after a dāyaka has requested a weaver to weave a robe for a bhikkhu who is not a relative of his, without being requested to do so, the latter proceeds to a weaver to give him instructions so that the woven robe is of better quality than the one that the donor has planned to give, and according to these instructions, the weaver makes it larger; or else thicker; of better quality; regular and flat; or he spreads the material or dyes the thread well, if he gets this robe woven according to his wish, it irremediably calls for its forfeiture, and it entails a pācittiya.

nissaggiya 28

"dasāhānāgataṃ kattikatemāsikapuṇṇamaṃ bhikkhuno paneva accekacīvaraṃ uppajjeyya, accekaṃ maññamānena bhikkhunā paṭiggahetabbaṃ. paṭiggahetvā yāva cīvarakālasamayaṃ nikkhipitabbaṃ. tato ce uttari nikkhipeyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to accept any extra robe – offered or not out of emergency – beyond the authorised period. If a bhikkhu accepts an extra robe that is offered or not because of an emergency, and he keeps it beyond the authorised period (refer to nissaggiya 3), it must be relinquished and it entails a pācittiya.

As an exception, a bhikkhu can accept an extra robe as soon as ten days before the end of the vassa, in case of emergency. A robe that is offered urgently is a robe offered by: a person who must leave on a trip; a pregnant woman; a sick person or a person whose faith in the dhamma suddenly arises. This donor can then invite the bhikkhu so as to offer him, or can himself go to the bhikkhu, and tell him: " vassāvāsikaṃ dassāmi." In English: "I offer you this robe of vassa." In these conditions (of emergency), the bhikkhus are authorised to accept a robe. If this robe is accepted before the kathina, it can be stored as a supplementary robe until the full moon of November (or beginning of December), that is to say, a month before the end of vassa. If this robe is accepted after the kathina, without determination, it can be stored during five months starting from the end of the vassa. If it is kept beyond the maximum authorised period, in both cases, it entails the nissaggiya 28.

nissaggiya 29

"upavassaṃ kho pana kattikapuṇṇamaṃ yāni kho pana tāni āraññakāni senāsanāni sākaṅkasammatāni sappaṭibhayāni, tathārūpesu bhikkhu senāsanesu viharanto ākaṅkhāno tiṇṇaṃ cīvarānaṃ aññataraṃ cīvaraṃ antaraghare nikkhipeyya, siyā ca tassa bhikkhuno kocideva paccayo tena cīvarena vippavāsāya, chārattaparamaṃ tena bhikkhunā tena cīvarena vippavasitabbaṃ. tato ce uttari vippavaseyya aññatra bhikkhu sammutiyā, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to leave one of the robes more than six nights in a village, at the end of the vassa period, while lodging in a dangerous area. If, during the kathina, a bhikkhu who is not sick, leaves one of his robes in a village for more than six nights, this robe must be abandoned and it entails a pācittiya.

During the kathina, if a bhikkhu living in a forest monastery fears a danger, he can leave one of his robes in a village for a period of six nights (at the most).

According to this rule, four conditions must be fulfilled to be permitted to leave a robe in a village:

  1. The bhikkhu has completed his vassa.
  2. The period – of the deposit of the robe – takes place during the kathina.
  3. The dwelling of the bhikkhu is located at least two thousand cubit lengths – approximately a kilometre/ (0.62 miles) – from the village.
  4. The bhikkhu fears to lose his robe.

nissaggiya 30

"yo pana bhikkhu jānaṃ saṃghikaṃ lābhaṃ pariṇataṃ attāno pariṇāmeyya, nissaggiyaṃ pācittiyaṃ."

Not to divert for his own benefit a donation made to the saṃgha. If, coming to know - by means of gestures or speech - that some things were meant to be offered to the saṃgha, a bhikkhu succeeds in getting them diverted to him for his own benefit, these things must be forsaken and it entails a pācittiya.

This rule specifies that even a bhikkhu who accepts things that his mother meant to offer to the saṃgha, after having influenced her to divert them to him, commits the nissaggiya 30.

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Origin: Texts in Burmese language

Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date of translation: 2000

Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou

Date of translation (into English): 2002

Update: 2005, June the 19th