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the 92 pācittiyas (5)

5th part, acelaka

pācittiya 41

"yo pana bhikkhu acelakassa vā paribbājakassa vā pāribbājakāya vā sahatthā khādanīyaṃ vā bhojanīyaṃ vā dadeyya, pācittiaṃ."

Not to give food to naked ascetics or other persons clinging to erroneous views. If a bhikkhu gives food to such persons with his own hands, this entails a pācittiya.

By giving products that are not foodstuffs to those persons (oil / ointments to be applied on the skin, soap, etc.), a bhikkhu does not commit an offence. Similarly, if a bhikkhu places a pot containing food in front of those persons telling them to take whatever they want from it, but without offering it from his own hands, he does not commit an offence.

pācittiya 42

"yo pana bhikkhu bhikkhuṃ "ehāvuso, gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā piṇḍāya pavisissāmā" ti tassa dāpetvā vā adāpetvā vā uyyojeyya "gacchāvuso, na me tayā saddhiṃ kathā vā nisajjā vā phāsu hoti, ekakassa me kathā vā nisajjā vā phāsu hotī" ti etadeva paccayaṃ kāritvā anaññaṃ, pācittiaṃ."

During the alms collection round, not to dismiss a bhikkhu with whom one is making this round. If a bhikkhu, having invited another bhikkhu to join him in the alms round and then, in the course of the round, dismisses him with no good reason, by leaving him or not a bit of food, or by telling him that it is not convenient that they do the round together, or that it is more convenient to follow his own route alone, he commits a pācittiya.

No offence is committed in the following cases:

  • the village is too small for the alms food to be sufficient for two or more bhikkhus (the senior among them may then be sent to other villages);
  • along the route of the alms round there are material riches that could cause greed to arise in the mind of some bhikkhus;
  • along the route of the alms round there are women who could arise the desire of certain bhikkhus, hance driving them away from monastic life;
  • in the monastery there is a bhikkhu gilāna or a bhikkhu guarding the vihāra to whom it is necessary to send food.

pācittiya 43

"yo pana bhikkhu sabhojane kule anupakhajja nisajjaṃ kappeyya, pācittiaṃ."

Not to remain near the place where a man and his companion lie when these are in the house. If a bhikkhu, being found in some maity's hereabouts, sits or remains standing near the bed of two persons making up a couple (or the place where these two sleep) when they are present in the bedroom (or the place where they sleep), he commits a pācittiya. If this bhikkhu is accompanied by at least one other bhikkhu when entering the bedroom where the couple is present, there is no fault.

pācittiya 44

"yo pana bhikkhu mātugāmena saddhiṃ raho paṭicchanne āsane nisajjaṃ kappeyya, pācittiaṃ."

Not to remain alone with a woman in an isolated place. If a bhikkhu finds himself with a woman – of whichever age, including an infant – in a place remote from others' sights, he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu is authorised to speak with a woman only if there is at least one more person – man or woman –, capable of understanding the words being exchanged. Otherwise, he is at the most authorised to teach her six consecutive words of dhamma in Pali (see pācittiya 7).

See the following pācittiya...

pācittiya 45

"yo pana bhikkhu mātugāmena saddhiṃ eko rayo nisajjaṃ kappeyya, pācittiaṃ."

Not to sit next to a woman in a place remote from others' ears. If a bhikkhu sits next to a woman, even for an instant, in a place where what is said can't be heard, he commits a pācittiya.

If in a place remote from others' ears, a bhikkhu sits next to a woman believing that he is a man, he commits the pācittiya 45. If he sits next to a man believing that he is a woman, he commits a dukkaṭa.

If, in a place remote from others' ears, a bhikkhu sits near a being endowed with the two sexes, a female ogre, a female "peta" or a female animal – whose size could allow the possibility of intercourse –, he commits a dukkaṭa.

If a bhikkhu is having a phone conversation with a woman and nobody can hear what is being said, he commits the pācittiya 45.

See also aniyata 1 and 2.

pācittiya 46

"yo pana bhikkhu nimantito sabhatto samāno santaṃ bhikkhuṃ anāpucchā purebhattaṃ vā pacchābhattaṃ vā kulesu cārittaṃ āpajjeyya aññatra samayā, pācittiaṃ samayo, cīvaradānasamayo cīvarakārasamayo, ayaṃ tattha samayo."

Not visit houses just before noon. Once it is agreed that a bhikkhu will eat at a certain place, if he pays visit to another house before commencing the meal or just after having finished it – between the end of the meal and noon –, from the time he reaches the other house, he commits a pācittiya.

By informing another bhikkhu – present at that meal –, he can pay visit to another house in case of an important reason, for instance so as to receive a robe as an offering or have one tailored.

There are two exceptions by which a bhikkhu is authorised to pay visit to a house before or after the time of the meal, having already been invited elsewhere:

  • there is an important reason to proceed there and he has informed a bhikkhu in order to inform the other bhikkhus being invited (or the dāyaka who invites).
  • the dāyaka of this house wishes, in this way, to offer him or tailor for him a robe, and we are in the "period of the robe" (this period starts from the first day following of the full moon day of October. If the benefits of the kathina have not been obtained, it lasts until the full moon day of November. If the benefits have been obtained, it lasts until the day of the March full moon).

pācittiya 47

"agilānena bhikkhunā catumāsappaccayapavāraṇā sāditabbā aññatra punapavāraṇāya, aññatra niccapavāraṇāya. tato ce uttari sādiyeyya. pācittiyaṃ."

Not to request medicinal products beyond the limits of the quantity or time fixed by the donor. Except in the case of a renewed or permanent invitation, if a bhikkhu who has no health problems benefits from medicines (or medicinal products) that he has requested beyond the fixed duration of the invitation proposed to the saṃgha (or to himself), or beyond the quantity agreed by the dāyaka who has issued the invitation, he commits a pācittiya.

It is proper for a bhikkhu to request medicines or medicinal products, from a dāyaka who has proposed them to him, only if he has health problems.

There are two kinds of invitations to request for medical products:

  • invitation setting a limited quantity of medicinal products;
  • invitation setting a limited duration of validity.

A bhikkhu who accepts a medicine that he has requested over and above the limits of the set quantity, or over and above the limits of the set time, commits the pācittiya 47. A fixed period ends at sunset on the last day (the first day being that when the invitation was made).

If a dāyaka offers an invitation to request medicinal products in case of need without establishing a duration, a bhikkhu has only four months to make the request for it. When this is a personal invitation, it is not necessary to fix a limit in quantity.

This rule only concerns medicinal products. When a dāyaka gives the invitation, any object of the three other requisites – clothing, lodging or nourishment – can be requested without a time limit – unless there is an indication to the contrary by the dāyaka. However, it is necessary to respect the maximum quantities imposed by the respective rules (nissaggiya 5 to 9, 22 and 26 to 28 for robes; saṃghādisesa 7 for lodging; pācittiya 31 to 35 and 39, pāṭidesanīya 1, 3 and 4 for food).

When a dāyaka invites a bhikkhu to ask for what he needs, the latter is not authorised to ask for anything other than an object comprised within the four requisites: clothing (robes, cloaks, etc.); feeding (bowl, foodstuffs, drinks, etc.); lodging (cabin, monastery, etc.); hygiene (medicines, soap, etc.) Eventually, he can ask for other requisites needed to carry out properly his practice, his studies, his teaching (cushion, books, writing material, etc.)

pācittiya 48

"yo pana bhikkhu uyyuttaṃ senaṃ dassanāya gaccheyya aññatra tathārūpappaccayā, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to watch an army departing for combat. If a bhikkhu moves to go and watch voluntarily an army exhibiting the "4 warring characteristics", if he is not forced to, if he goes to watch such an army leaving the town or village to go to combat – or returning from combat –, he commits a pācittiya.

In the past, when armed troops returned to town from combat, they presented, under the form of "4 warring characteristics":

  • elephants, each of them carrying four persons mounting it and eight persons walking to its side, making up twelve persons per elephant;
  • horses, each of them carrying one person mounting it and two persons walking to its side, making up three persons per horse;
  • tanks, each of them carrying a driver, a soldier and two men to survey the roads, making up four persons per vehicle;
  • groups of archers on foot, in numbers of four.

If these four warring characteristics are present when the bhikkhu come close to watch, he commits the pācittiya 48. Otherwise, he commits a dukkaṭa for each of the warring characteristics being observed.

If a bhikkhu sees an armed troop that arrives near the place where he is, or when travelling he comes across – by chance – an armed troop, he does not commit a fault.

By going to pay a visit to a sick or injured parent who is within the armed group, a bhikkhu does not commit any fault.

pācittiya 49

"siyā ca tassa bhikkhuno kocideva paccayo senaṃ gamanāya, dirattatirattaṃ tena bhikkhunā senāya vasitabbaṃ, tato ce uttari vaseyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to sleep with an armed troop for more than three consecutive nights. If for any reason whatsoever a bhikkhu voluntarily spends more than two or three nights running with an armed troop, he commits a pācittiya.

A bhikkhu can stay at the most three consecutive days within a military camp. If he does not leave this place, he commits pācittiya 49 from the sunset of the third day. If he stays two nights, spending the following night outside the military camp, and returns to spend two more nights within this camp or in another, he does not commit a fault.

Similarly, a bhikkhu does not commit a fault by staying more than three days with a military troop if he is busy attending to a sick or injured relative who is there, or if he himself is ill or injured, or if the camp is surrounded by enemies.

pācittiya 50

"dirattatirattaṃ ce bhikkhu senāya vasamāno uyyodhikaṃ vā balaggaṃ vā senābyūhaṃ vā anīkakassanaṃ vā gaccheyya, pācittiyaṃ."

Not to witness military activities. If a bhikkhu assists in a military gathering, a review, a parade, or an exercise where elephants, horses or other troops in arms are present, he commits a pācittiya.

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Origin: Texts in Burmese language

Translator (Burmese to French): Monk Dhamma Sāmi

Date of translation: 2000

Translator (French to English: Thierry Lambrou

Date of translation (into English): 2002

Update: 2005, June the 19th